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This banner text can have markup. Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. Books by Language Additional Collections. Theories that the sources of Bulgarian tribal names are indigenous or Autochtonic theories. According to these theories, the ancient Bulgarians are an old European population. Croatian Mauro Orbini Mavro Orbinior claims that the Asparukh Bulgarians came from the land between Scandinavia and Volga river, he does not separate them from the Slavs.

Here, lllyric has been mentioned as the first Bulgarian Tsar who, according to the work of A. Mioshich, is the first king of the Croatians Illyrians. Ilovaisky, B. FIorinskiy and others. The autochtonic seex was sez developed in the work of sex yinniy Bulgarian sex Gancho Tsenov.

For Tsenov, the ancient Bulgarians, Thracians and Slavs, are one and the same. However, not the original but only XII century copy of this map has been preserved, which makes the early dating of the Bulgarians in Moesia not yunniiy in this copy the geographic name Bulgaria is of XII century AD. The medieval maps are upside-down, south at the top, north - at the bottom. The map cited by G. Tsenov is not the original one yinniy Saint Jerome, it is of later origin, a possibility that G.

Theories of the migration of populations or Migration theories. According to this basic group of theories the ancient Bulgarians migrated from Asia to Europe. Apparently, he meant the Volga Bulgaria populated at that time with turkic speaking muslims. In addition, Bacon links together yyunniy Bulgarians and the Hungarians with the Huns - a common name of the people coming from the East. The origin of the Vlahs here is completely misrepresented. While researching the lives of orthodox saints, including the life of Saint Constantin Cyril Philosopher, the Dutch historian Eex.

Henshenius concluded in that the Bulgarians came yujniy the land of the Sarmatians. Joseph Assemani reached the sex conclusion in Joseph Dissertii also concluded yunnly the Bulgarians came to Europe together with the Huns, but they were a separate people. In the Swedish officer and geographer F.

His contemporary V. Tatishchev accepted and yunniy this idea. The 4 same idea was accepted also by the German scientists Schlotzer and Tunman, who worked in Russia His contemporary J. Peisonelle wrote that the Bulgarians remind him of the Nogai Tatars. In this way, gradually, by the end of the XVIII century the Bulgarians were linked with the Tatars yunnoy with the turkic people in general.

In A. Hilferding hypothesized that the ancient Bulgarians were related to the ancient Hungarians. In Austro-Hungarian scientist R. Rosier expanded the notion and placed the Bulgarians among the wildest yunniy of South Siberia.

The French scientist and geographer Guillaume Lejean was also interested in the origin of the Bulgarians. He wrote that the Bulgarians were ugarin people, who were mentioned in the Armenian lands about years ynuniy. Lejean wrote that the Bulgarians, yunniy spite of their origin, culturally became Slavic, and in IX century after the acceptance of Christianity, began to speak Slavic language.

In the Austro-Hungarian scientist Wilhelm Tomashek tried to explain the Bulgarian ethnonym with the esx bulya - to mix, bulyamak - mixture, bulyanuq - opake, dirty.

In the Hungarian linguist-turkologist Bernat Munkachi concluded the the Bulgarians sfx a mixture of Turks and Ugrians, he explained the Bulgarian ethnonym quite frivolously as a mixture of the turkic buuk - big and ogur - ugrians, i.

And quite naturally, the Bulgarian Marin Drinov, who at that time was working as a professor at the University sex Harkov in Russia, was strongly influenced by this popular knowledge that the Bulgarians were Finno- Ugrians.

In N. The development of the Bulgarian historian science began after the re-establishment of the Bulgarian state in The founders of the Bulgarian yunnij science: V.

Zlatarski, G. Yunnit, D. Dechev, P. Mutafchiev, treated the origin of the Bulgarians in this ideological environment. The English historian S. Sex spread V. Due to the huge popularity of this author, the Huns idea found quick support by the rest of the Bulgarian historians. In fact, the first Bulgarian historians naturally blindly?

Another yunniy, I. The task to do this fell on the young historian Alexander Burmov Burmov had accepted the ideas of the soviet historian and philologist Nikolai Yunniy that the ancient Bulgarians were by origin Sarmatians.

There was no information about the facts that brought the author to this conclusion. No other authors with such ideas were mentioned.

It is possible that the source of this decision was the idea of Ivan Shishmanov developed further by St. Mladenov that the ancient Yunnniy spoke turkic language. The author made a connection between the state of Balujia around Cucha, and buloji people, between Gansu and East Tian Shan as well as the province of today Shancywith the contemporary Chinese name for Bulgaria, Baojialiya, and Bulgarians, baojiali, Simeonov's conclusion was very interesting with one significant shortcoming: he accepted that the population of East Turkestan and North China was entirely turkic since very ancient times, but his Chinese restoration of the transcripts were entirely wrong.

These people were Wusuns 6 and decedents of the Wusuns, who, together with the Alans, kept migrating more and more to the West under the pressure of the wave of turkic people, which after the Swx century swallowed the entire Sec Asia.

He sex that a large Iranian-Sarmatian component played a role in the ethnogenesis of the ancient Bulgarians. In Dimitar I. Dimitrov, a Bulgarian archeologist, made an interesting comparison between the pagan Bulgarian necropolis in Devnia a small town near the city of Varna and the one in Tulhar, the necropolises in the Byshket Valey, and along the Kafirnigan river in northern Sex Toharistan that were left from the II century BC by the conquerers of Graeco-Bactria. The same author noticed the widely spread among the Bulgarians at the time, as well as among Avars, Alans, Kushans, Swx, and Eftalits, custom of artificial skull deformation.

Contemporary reading of the old sources. In many of his publications professor Sex Dobrev attempted to prove that the ancient Bulgarians belonged to the agricultural Iranian societies who lived in the ancient region of Bactria. His ideas became widely popular among the public and the history buffs sex not among the professional academic historians. After the initial excitement, the facts that P.

Dobrev had presented were carefully evaluated, and compared with the well known history of this part of Central Asia. It became clear that these facts were not presented correctly. Later, after the arrival of the Kushans, wild yunniy hunter gatherers, the ancient Bulgarians-Bahliks were forced to leave Bactria and migrated yjnniy the Caucuses.

The name of their leader, Vund, was recorded by the Armenian historian Movses Khorenatsi. Yuniy, let us look at the evidence that P.

Dobrev offers. Dobrev understood as Tadjikistan. This information Dobrev connected with the report by Michael Siriiski on the migration yunniy the Bulgarians to the Imeon mountain which, according to Dobrev, is located in the Pamir - Hindu Kush mountains in Central Asia. In Yunjiy work, the archeological evidence and archeological comparisons were completely ignored.

His linguistic comparisons, in spite of some interesting observations, are completely devoid of a sex etymological analysis and are presented incorrectly. He is also far from the historical chronology of this region. Maliavkin, Bolo is a mountainous region to the south of Karakorum, located along the upper Ind ynniy and the yunniy of the river Gilgit; ynuniy corresponds to yuniy Baltistan swx now in PakistanDjamu and Kashmir.

However, this toponym appeared much later, after VI century. Do we have a reason to see in Balh necessarily a Bulgarian ethnonym? The ancient name of Balh is Baxdi. The problem yuhniy that the name of Balh has not been in use by the local population sex the coming of the Kushans. In his description of Balhara mountain, he said that between this mountain and China Chin and Machin the land of Tadjeh was located, a big and strong state with the city of Tadjeh as its capital.

Here, it must be mentioned again that P. Yunniy interpreted Tadjeh as Tadjikistan quite erroneously. Dimashki gave us also the following, somewhat clearer, description of Balhara. In yunhiy, the ancient Iranian population of Bactria from the pre-Kushans era has a clearly yunniy civilization - the Avestian, sex its prophet Zarathustra, the founder of the Zoroastrian religion. Zoroastrianism has deep roots in this population and their decedents.

Not a trace of such mythology and religious beliefs has been documented among the ancient Bulgarians. It is not possible that the people who created Zoroastrianism, and according to Dobrev these were the ancient Bulgarians-Bactrians, have no recollections whatsoever of the legends and 8 beliefs most sacred for the settled Iranian people. Another undisputed fact, about which Dobrev is silent, is the spread of Buddhism. This religion and philosophical teaching was created in the IV century BC.

It was widely spread in Bactria well yunniy the times of Alexander the Great and the invasion of the Kushans. But among the ancient Bulgarians sxe were yunniy even traces of Buddhism, just like of the Zoroastrianism.

Also, such highly cultured wex hardly would remain unnoticed by the ancient and Armenian yunniy, with the small exception of the mentioned name of Vund.

Theories that the sources of Bulgarian tribal names are indigenous or Autochtonic theories. According to these theories, the ancient Bulgarians are an old European population. Croatian Mauro Orbini Mavro Orbinior claims that the Asparukh Bulgarians came from the land between Scandinavia and Volga river, he does not separate them from the Slavs. Here, lllyric has been mentioned as the first Bulgarian Tsar who, according to the work of A.

Mioshich, is the first king of the Croatians Illyrians. Ilovaisky, B. FIorinskiy and others. The autochtonic theory was fully developed in the work of the extravagant Bulgarian historian Gancho Tsenov. For Tsenov, the ancient Bulgarians, Thracians and Slavs, are one and the same.

However, not the original but only XII century copy of this map has been preserved, which makes the early dating of the Bulgarians in Moesia not precise: in this copy the geographic name Bulgaria is of XII century AD. The medieval maps are upside-down, south at the top, north - at the bottom. The map cited by G. Tsenov is not the original one of Saint Jerome, it is of later origin, a possibility that G.

Theories of the migration of populations or Migration theories. According to this basic group of theories the ancient Bulgarians migrated from Asia to Europe.

Apparently, he meant the Volga Bulgaria populated at that time with turkic speaking muslims. In addition, Bacon links together the Bulgarians and the Hungarians with the Huns - a common name of the people coming from the East. The origin of the Vlahs here is completely misrepresented. While researching the lives of orthodox saints, including the life of Saint Constantin Cyril Philosopher, the Dutch historian G. Henshenius concluded in that the Bulgarians came from the land of the Sarmatians.

Joseph Assemani reached the same conclusion in Joseph Dissertii also concluded that the Bulgarians came to Europe together with the Huns, but they were a separate people. In the Swedish officer and geographer F.

His contemporary V. Tatishchev accepted and popularized this idea. The 4 same idea was accepted also by the German scientists Schlotzer and Tunman, who worked in Russia His contemporary J. Peisonelle wrote that the Bulgarians remind him of the Nogai Tatars.

In this way, gradually, by the end of the XVIII century the Bulgarians were linked with the Tatars and with the turkic people in general. In A. Hilferding hypothesized that the ancient Bulgarians were related to the ancient Hungarians.

In Austro-Hungarian scientist R. Rosier expanded the notion and placed the Bulgarians among the wildest tribes of South Siberia. The French scientist and geographer Guillaume Lejean was also interested in the origin of the Bulgarians. He wrote that the Bulgarians were ugarin people, who were mentioned in the Armenian lands about years ago.

Lejean wrote that the Bulgarians, in spite of their origin, culturally became Slavic, and in IX century after the acceptance of Christianity, began to speak Slavic language. In the Austro-Hungarian scientist Wilhelm Tomashek tried to explain the Bulgarian ethnonym with the turkic bulya - to mix, bulyamak - mixture, bulyanuq - opake, dirty. In the Hungarian linguist-turkologist Bernat Munkachi concluded the the Bulgarians were a mixture of Turks and Ugrians, he explained the Bulgarian ethnonym quite frivolously as a mixture of the turkic buuk - big and ogur - ugrians, i.

And quite naturally, the Bulgarian Marin Drinov, who at that time was working as a professor at the University of Harkov in Russia, was strongly influenced by this popular knowledge that the Bulgarians were Finno- Ugrians. In N. The development of the Bulgarian historian science began after the re-establishment of the Bulgarian state in The founders of the Bulgarian historical science: V.

Zlatarski, G. Balaschev, D. Dechev, P. Mutafchiev, treated the origin of the Bulgarians in this ideological environment. The English historian S. Runciman spread V. Due to the huge popularity of this author, the Huns idea found quick support by the rest of the Bulgarian historians.

In fact, the first Bulgarian historians naturally blindly? Another author, I. The task to do this fell on the young historian Alexander Burmov Burmov had accepted the ideas of the soviet historian and philologist Nikolai Marr that the ancient Bulgarians were by origin Sarmatians.

There was no information about the facts that brought the author to this conclusion. No other authors with such ideas were mentioned. It is possible that the source of this decision was the idea of Ivan Shishmanov developed further by St. Mladenov that the ancient Bulgarians spoke turkic language. The author made a connection between the state of Balujia around Cucha, and buloji people, between Gansu and East Tian Shan as well as the province of today Shancy , with the contemporary Chinese name for Bulgaria, Baojialiya, and Bulgarians, baojiali, Simeonov's conclusion was very interesting with one significant shortcoming: he accepted that the population of East Turkestan and North China was entirely turkic since very ancient times, but his Chinese restoration of the transcripts were entirely wrong.

These people were Wusuns 6 and decedents of the Wusuns, who, together with the Alans, kept migrating more and more to the West under the pressure of the wave of turkic people, which after the V century swallowed the entire Central Asia. He concluded that a large Iranian-Sarmatian component played a role in the ethnogenesis of the ancient Bulgarians. In Dimitar I. Dimitrov, a Bulgarian archeologist, made an interesting comparison between the pagan Bulgarian necropolis in Devnia a small town near the city of Varna and the one in Tulhar, the necropolises in the Byshket Valey, and along the Kafirnigan river in northern Bactria Toharistan that were left from the II century BC by the conquerers of Graeco-Bactria.

The same author noticed the widely spread among the Bulgarians at the time, as well as among Avars, Alans, Kushans, Huonits, and Eftalits, custom of artificial skull deformation. Contemporary reading of the old sources. In many of his publications professor Petar Dobrev attempted to prove that the ancient Bulgarians belonged to the agricultural Iranian societies who lived in the ancient region of Bactria.

His ideas became widely popular among the public and the history buffs but not among the professional academic historians. After the initial excitement, the facts that P.

Dobrev had presented were carefully evaluated, and compared with the well known history of this part of Central Asia. It became clear that these facts were not presented correctly. Later, after the arrival of the Kushans, wild nomadic hunter gatherers, the ancient Bulgarians-Bahliks were forced to leave Bactria and migrated to the Caucuses. The name of their leader, Vund, was recorded by the Armenian historian Movses Khorenatsi. Now, let us look at the evidence that P.

Dobrev offers. Dobrev understood as Tadjikistan. This information Dobrev connected with the report by Michael Siriiski on the migration of the Bulgarians to the Imeon mountain which, according to Dobrev, is located in the Pamir - Hindu Kush mountains in Central Asia. In Dobrev's work, the archeological evidence and archeological comparisons were completely ignored.

His linguistic comparisons, in spite of some interesting observations, are completely devoid of a comparative etymological analysis and are presented incorrectly. He is also far from the historical chronology of this region.

Maliavkin, Bolo is a mountainous region to the south of Karakorum, located along the upper Ind river and the valley of the river Gilgit; it corresponds to the Baltistan today now in Pakistan , Djamu and Kashmir.

However, this toponym appeared much later, after VI century. Do we have a reason to see in Balh necessarily a Bulgarian ethnonym? The ancient name of Balh is Baxdi. The problem is that the name of Balh has not been in use by the local population until the coming of the Kushans. In his description of Balhara mountain, he said that between this mountain and China Chin and Machin the land of Tadjeh was located, a big and strong state with the city of Tadjeh as its capital.

Here, it must be mentioned again that P. Dobrev interpreted Tadjeh as Tadjikistan quite erroneously. Dimashki gave us also the following, somewhat clearer, description of Balhara. In addition, the ancient Iranian population of Bactria from the pre-Kushans era has a clearly defined civilization - the Avestian, with its prophet Zarathustra, the founder of the Zoroastrian religion.

Zoroastrianism has deep roots in this population and their decedents. Not a trace of such mythology and religious beliefs has been documented among the ancient Bulgarians. It is not possible that the people who created Zoroastrianism, and according to Dobrev these were the ancient Bulgarians-Bactrians, have no recollections whatsoever of the legends and 8 beliefs most sacred for the settled Iranian people.

Another undisputed fact, about which Dobrev is silent, is the spread of Buddhism. This religion and philosophical teaching was created in the IV century BC. It was widely spread in Bactria well before the times of Alexander the Great and the invasion of the Kushans. But among the ancient Bulgarians there were no even traces of Buddhism, just like of the Zoroastrianism.

Also, such highly cultured society hardly would remain unnoticed by the ancient and Armenian historians, with the small exception of the mentioned name of Vund. There is another fact that deserves a consideration. It is not so with the nomadic people who depend on their herds, and respectively, on new and better pastures.

Thus, most likely the ancient Bulgarians migrated to the Caucuses before they became agricultural society. It seems that P. For all these reasons, today the ideas of P. It was professor At. Stamatov who made the first attempts to summarize and scientifically analyze with a more complex approach all known information about the ancient Bulgarians. The author looked for a more convincing original Bulgarian homeland, somewhere to the north, in the Central Asian steppes.

He could not separate the ancient Bulgarians from the Alans and the other people of the wusun- yuezhian Assians-Toharian circle. Another serious contemporary historian is professor Tsvetelin Stepanov, a specialist in cultural sciences. This, in general, is the earliest region of formation of the Bulgarians.

The problem is that in this same area, much before the appearance of the Turks as a recognizable ethnos or as a formed state, many more East Iranians, with their political formations, used to live as well.

It is quite logical to reach this conclusion since the Bulgarians appeared on the historical stage much before the Turks. Goliiski, a philologist, who also supports a more northern variant of the Bulgarian origin, presented to the Bulgarian readers some new information on the ancient Bulgarians formation derived from new, not yet popularized Armenian sources. Until recently, professor R. Rashev was one of the leading archeologists, exploring the ancient Bulgarian archeological heritage.

Based mostly on archeological facts and their comparative analysis, he raised the hypothesis that the ancient Bulgarians were a Sarmatian plurality with turkic elite as rulers.

This opinion does not survive rigorous critics and corrections either. The only descendent of this language today is the Chuvashian. In general, our academic historian science today lacks a unified opinion on the origin of the ancient Bulgarians. Most of the academicians still stand on the old dogmatic positions accepting as an axiom that the ancient Bulgarians were turks, without attempt to learn deeper into the available evidence.

Only recently, the number of the scientists that dared to ask more questions on the subject began to increase. Among the scholars in the West, in the Soviet Union, and today in Russia, the turkic theory is being accepted a priori. In the countries in West Europe they refer mostly to the V.

Zlatarski work, and in Russian speaking science - mostly to the works of authors from the Soviet era: M. Artamonov, S. Pletneva, and others. For example, the well recognized American historian and turkologist P. Both, in the West and the East, any attempt to look for a new insights into the origin of the ancient Bulgarians is being viewed with a suspicion. Chuvash and Tatar science on the origin of the ancient Bulgarians. The Chuvash population today is considered to be descendent from the Volga Bulgarians, and their language as a development of the language of these ancient Bulgarians living along the Volga river.

For this reason, the origin of the ancient Bulgarians is in the focus of the historian science in Chuvashia. The concepts for this origin is published by leading Chuvash historians V. Dimitriev, V. Ivanov, V. They are not different from the concepts of the Bulgarian scientists supporting the Flunns-Turkic origin. There they came to regions densely populated with Massagets and Wusuns speaking Iranian language along the Surdaria river. In Tatrstan, they are also interested in the origin of the ancient Bulgarians since this question is indirectly related to the role go the Volga Bulgarians in the Tatars ethnogenesis.

There are three basic theories on they subject: Bulgarian-Tatar theory. The ancient Bulgarians are considered as turkic people who founded the Volga Bulgaria, and the Tatars are a second turkic wave as a result of which the Tatar ethos was formed. The main defenders of this idea are A. Halikov, M. Zakiev, G. Usupov, T. Trofimova, FI. Flimadi, L.

Zaliai, N. Nurutdinov and G. Contrary to the theory presented above, the representatives of this theory do not accept any Bulgarian role in the formation of the Tatar ethos since at the time of the conquering almost all Bulgarian population has died out. Those who survived gave the beginning of the Chuvash ethnos.

The contemporary Tatars are Kipchaks by their origin who the Mongols used for their striking military units. Originally, a Tatar meant a descendent of the conquerers, and subsequently it became a name to designate all turkic speaking muslims of the Kupchaks group; it replaced the old name besserman or basurman meaning turkic speaking muslim.

The Chuvash language which is very different from all the rest of the turkic languages, is a distant descendent of the older Volga Bulgarian population. The main defenders of this theory are N.

Ashmarin, V. Smolin, P. Fahrudinov, the ideologist of the panturkism - Zeki Validi-Togan, who lived in Russia until under the name of Validov, R. Rahmati, Chuvash history school, Bashkirian historians and archeologists.

Turkic-Tatar theory. The supporters of this theory search for a compromising solution between the above antagonistic theories. The basic elements are the Turkic language, Islam, the stable statehood, and the similar social culture. The basic, key period for the Tatar ethnogenesis was the time of the Golden Horde when the formation of the national conscience began. The basic representatives of this theory are: N.

Baskakov, S. Mumediarov, R. Kuzeev, M. Usmanov, D. Gubaidulin, A. Keppeler, N. Devlet, I. This author, a historian-dilettante, has a rather unbiased position. He thinks that the ancient Bulgarians and the Sarmations-Alans have common origin related to the Indo-European civilization in Central Asia spread between Altai and Cintsian. Part of these tribes conquered Greaco-Bactria and became known as Kushans. Another part continued to the West conquering the lands between the Asian rivers; they founded the tribal community of the Kangars or Kangjiu, as is known from the Chinese sources.

The Bulgarian-Sarmatian tribes were separated from the most western part of Kangjiu. At a later stage, they began to mix with the coming from the East Tukic speaking Kumans-Kipchaks, an anthropological mixture of Europeans and Mongols. A new ethnos was formed, which anthropologically inherited the old Volga Bulgarians but their conscience was formed during the Golden Horde period; they were called Tatars. Bayar explained the ethnogenesis on a completely different scientific basis.

He tried to prove that the anthropological and genetic inheritance in a population are independent from the linguistic processes. His idea is presented graphically in Figure 3. The contemporary Tatars speak a turkic language from the Kipchaks group of languages, as a race they have inherited the older Sarmatian-Alan-Bulgarian population.

Culturally, they became part of the Turkic Islamic cultural domain. While looking at all these theories, one has to keep in mind that today in Chuvash and Tatar countries, as in all post-Soviet turkic world, a complex process of search for the ll national identity and national roots is taking place. This process involves a subjugation of the local history schools to the contemporary political climate, which can explain the increased interest for including the history and the culture of the Volga Bulgaria without taking into account the complex ethnogenetisis process and the huge migrations that took place during the time of the Mongol invasion and the Golden Horde.

Today, Chuvash history school proclaims the Chuvash people as the sole and direct descendants of the Volga Bulgaria. Similarly, the turkic Karachaevobalkars and Kumics in the Caucasus, without any reason, proclaimed themselves as direct descendants of the ancient Bulgarians ignoring the facts that they are population of Kipchaks Kumans of much later origin who run to the Caucasus to save themselves from the Mongol invasion.

For all these reasons, the readers must be very critical of the writings of these authors. Literature Sources and Further Reading S. Mladenov Zaimova European models for the Bulgarian nation. History and Meaning. Sofia, pp. Maps and Politics.

A Review of the Ethnographic Cartography of Macedonia. Liverpool , p. Sofia, p. First Bulgarian State, Sofia p. Novosibirsk, pp. Digital South Asia Library.

Nomads of the western Eurasian steppes: Oyurs, Onoyurs and Khazars. Studies on the Peoples and Cultures of the Eurasian Steppes, ed. Before mentioning the Bulgarians under 77, other Asian people were recorded Sabebi ex quo Arabes - Sabebi was forefather of the Arabs, Mamsuir, ex quo Armenii - Mamsuir was forefather of the Armenians, Ziezi ex quo Vulgares.

Ewilat is the name in the Roman-Byzantine geographical tradition of the area of Gandhara in northern India. Ziezi hardly had anything to do with Eiwlat but in this case it is important that the Bulgarians were recorded as people coming from the East. The name of Ziezi has been discussed extensively in the Bulgarian literature: was he 1 a mythical forefather, or 2 a real historical person? A good candidate for the first possibility is the Central Asian god-hero Siyavash worshiped by the people in the land of Kangji Sogdiana and Floresm.

In Floresm he was called Siyevus or Saus and was considered the forefather of all their rulers. It is known also among the Ossetians as Saeuassae, forefather of the Asses and Nartes mythical heroes. According to D. The connection between Saeauaessae and Ziezi is quite possible! As for the second possibility, we can bring the name of the Sarmatian leader Zizais another variation of the name Saeuassae who, together with other tribes, moved to Pannonia in AD.

In the middle of the IV century. Become federates of Rome, as the Sarmatians- ardaragantes - derivative Ossetian armdarag - autocrat, i. Sarmatians with the government. Among these tribes could have been Bulgarians as well, however, no source reports this possibility. In this case, the year is not important since the copy is from a later time. Sussag was the name of a known Sarmatian-Roxolans and Alans ruler around river Don during 1st-2d centuries who fought the Romans together with the Dacians.

The persian name Zsoariq Seosis is also analogous, a variant of which, Zsooariq, was the name of a person close to the Sassanid Shah Kavadh. A more expressive form of the same name is Zsaooariq Seosis.

According to F. Justi, all these names are derivatives of the basic name of the god-hero Siawas Siyavash. There is similar Bulgarian name too: Sizo as well as the older names Zuzo, Zeizo, Zozdo known from the time of the Renaissance.

Peter monastery in Salzburg. He traveled as far as India where his name came from. The Bulgarians were placed between the Greeks and the Herules, a German tribe that between 3d and 6th centuries was living in the land between the West Balkans and Pannonia.

In the battle at the river Tzurta now river Chorlou in European Tukey, 65 miles from Istambul the general was defeated and 4, Byzantine soldiers died. In , many Bulgarians took a part in the uprising of general Vitalian against Emperor Anastasius. The Syrian author John Malalas wrote about the same event indicating that the Thracian Vitalian rebelled against the Emperor and took over Thracia and Scythia these were the lands of Dobrudja, Mizia, Odessos and Anhealo leading many Huns and Bulgarians.

Evagrius Scholasticus, also Syrian, wrote that Vitalian was the leader of many Hunnic tribes. The name of this tribe has not been mentioned. And the barbarians the Persians ravished the East and Anastasius 14 made peace with them. Then the Thracian Vitalian struggled for power and with the help of the Meosians and Scythians i. And he, the imperial general Cyril fought against Vitalian, and there was a bloodbath on both sides.

Emperor Basil II. The wall of Anastassius I was build in However, the Bulgarians joined the Goths king and helped him in his attack on Campania.

Bulgarians were allies of the Goths and in AD, on because after the defeat and death of the Gothic king Teia at the foot of Vesuvius, its fighters fled to Campsa Campania together with their prey, commanded by the uturgur Ranyari. The name is of Iranian originq Avest. Senator Cassiodorus wrote also that in the time of the Roman council Cethegus " In front of my eyes is the Bulgarian commander brought down by your hand hand of Theoderic which defends the freedom Who could stand up to such an enemy, who is carried and fed by and on his fast animal?

This is a description of the war between the Goths and the Gepids for the region of Sirmium. The Gepids, who lived in a union with the Bulgarians in question, were against this. Ennodius reported also interesting details of the life of the Bulgarians - drinking of horse milk, typical for the people of the steppes. Although of unknown ethnical origin, Mundus, as mentioned above, was an interesting person.

A well 15 known adventurer from the Bulgarian part of the Gepid kingdom, he run away because of a crime he committed in Byzantium. At the beginning, together with other adventurers, he fought the Byzantines but in he joined them after he was caught by Justinian and betrayed many of his fellow fighters living in Asia Minor.

At the end, he was appointed as a governor of the province of llliricum. Theophanus the Confessor described this battle in adding that many of the captured Bulgarians moved to live in Armenia and Lazica, where they joined some remnant of Bulgarians that were living already there. At the beginning, they were defeated by the byzantine troops in Moesia and llliricum where both kings were killed in the battle, but later the Byzantines were destroyed by another Bulgarian detachment.

The same event was reported by Anastassius the Librarian translated in Latin by Theophanus. John Malalas also described this event although he assumed the invaders were Huns.

In the beginning, the Gothic king Theoderic was in the surrounding of Emperor Zeno, and lives as a distinguished aristocrat in Constantinople. But while he was surrounded by wealth, the Gothic people were living in misery. For this reason, he decided to move with all the Goths to the Balkan lands of Byzantium and Italy by taking it from Odoacres.

The events described by P. Deacon took place in but Zeno encouraged the Gepids and the Bulgarians to attack Theoderic. Sigibert repeated what P. The origin of the name is Iranian. In Avest. Marcelinus Comes reported also that during the reign of the next emperor Anastassius, in , the Bulgarians destroyed Thrace. Vidin , and before that they took over "The Lower land of Ohrid" Macedonia , and then the whole land.

By Huns-Massagets we must understand Bulgarians, who, in spite of the inaccurate description of the events, came not as an enemy but as allies of the emperor. Exactly behind the Carpathian mountain was the Gepids kingdom, which clearly indicates that these were the same Bulgarian-Gepids allies. Latin and Greek sources indicate that in the second half of the 5th and the beginning of the 6th centuries a Bulgarian community settled in Pannonia where they were living in the same kingdom with the Gepids.

During the long years of peaceful life, they forgot their military habits and became very unwise about their security. When around AD the Longobards, together with the Avars, destroyed the Gepids kingdom, and then they moved to settle in Italy together with other tribes among which were also the Bulgarians. Pope Gregory the Great wrote that the Bulgarians settled in the area south of the Alps before Italy was conquered by Alboin. A simultaneous movement of the Gepids and Bulgarians has been described as well.

According to the Bulgarian scientists S. Lishev and M. Voynov, this encounter took place probably at the time of Attila; however, P.

However, the Kutrigurs and the Avars were allies, not enemies of the Longobards; they defeated the Gepids and their allies, the Bulgarians together.

This indicates that if they did not mean some earlier event or some encounter before Attila arrived, i. And this happened not earlier than , when the outbreak of the first Longobard-Gepidian war. To the south of them, on the other side of the river Danube, is the country, Carinthia, [lying] south to the mountains, called the Alps.

To the same mountains extend the boundaries of the Bavarians, and of the Suabians; and then, to the east of the country Carinthia, beyond the desert, is the country of the Bulgarians ; and, to the east of them, the country of the Greeks. Hampson clearly seen that: "Since Alfred places Bulgaria to the east of the wastes above mentioned it is probable, that anciently there were two divisions of the people, one of which was seated on the Danube next to Dacia, which is the present Moldavia ; the other appears to have been these who are sometimes called Belo-Chroati.

Southern Poland and western Ukraine Galicia. This fact is supported by the Theophilus the Preacher report see below that before , when the Bulgarians for the first time invaded llliricum and Thrace, nobody had heard of them.

Thus, it is not possible to talk about Bulgarian presence in Europe before the reign of emperor Zeno One part of them were called Altziagirs, the other - Savirs. Altziagirs inhabit the land around Khersones The significance of the Jordanes description is that he clearly distinguishes the Bulgarians and the Huns, to whom the Altziagirs, Savirs and Hunugurs Onogurs belong. This author mentioned also Khazaria as a vast land, and the Khazars who he called also Akatzirs Agatzirs citing Jordanes although Jordanes did not say that.

Throughout this country flows river Kufis Kuban but the author did not mention presence of Bulgarians there, indicating that this geographic picture is described after the Bulgarian migration out of the country under the pressure by the Khazars. Recently, they began to call this land Gepidia; as it is well known now, the Unes Avars people live there.

It is well known that the Ravenna Cosmography was put together between , when the Frisians conquered Dorestad about which is mentioned , and no later than , when the Arabs conquered Spain not mentioned. For this reason, the Bulgarians were described as recently settled on the Balkans people. But before that we will tell you about the Unogondurs-Bulgars and the Kotrags Kutrigurs past.

Jews and many other people live along the east coast of this lake, at Phanagoria. Between the lake itself and river Kuphis lays the Old Great Bulgaria, inhabited by Bulgarians and Kotrags of the same tribe.

Nekropil or Dead gates is in the common mouth of the rivers Dnieper and Bug. Plere Theophanes meant Kerch Strait. Quetrades Kubrat , the prince of the Moutanes Pluns , and a nephew of Quernakes Organa, at Patriarch Nikephorus , was baptized as a child and was educated in Constantinople. Fie grew up in the imperial palace 19 and was a close friend of emperor Heraclius Anastassius the Librarian, of Latin origin, literary repeated what was told by Theophanus.

Around the Maeotis lake along the river Kophin Kuban is situated the known from the old times Great Bulgaria. The so-called Kotrags Kotragoi , from the same tribe as the Bulgarians, also lived there.

During the times of Constantin who died in the West, Kubrat, the old ruler, also died leaving behind five sons whom he asked to be united and not to divide their land It is clear from this source that the Bulgarians inhabited the land along the river Kuban till the coasts of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov Figure 5.

Besides Bulgarians, they were called also Unogundurs; the Kotrags Kutrigurs were from the same tribe. Only Nikephoros, who's text is shorter than the other sources, mentioned Huns among the Bulgarians.

Since the Bulgarians and the Gepids were mentioned together at the same time, it becomes clear that the author meant the Bulgarians from Pannonia who, together with the Gepids, joined the Avars after the latter, together with the Longobards, conquered their country in Emperor Constantine army was shamefully thrown out and totally destroyed From now on, the Bulgarian kingdom with their ruler Batai, must be acknowledged. A description of the Constantine Pogonat military campaign, and the unfortunate for Byzantium war with the Bulgarians follows.

Justin the Thracian ruled 9 years and 3 months. His son, Constantine reigned 17 years. During his 13th year, saints gathered in Constantinople for the Fourth Ecumenical Council. This anonymous author has made a few chronological errors. The Fourth Ecumenical Council took place in November of , during the 13th year of Emperor Constantine indeed, which clearly indicates that Emperor Constantine IV is the same Emperor Constantine Pogonat during whose reign the Bulgarians settled south of Danube river.

This is why Emperor Constantine went against them both by land and by sea with a fleet coming from the sea into the Danube. They the Avars took away the whole population from these provinces and sent them to the outer side of Pannonia near river Danube. The main city of this province was the so-called Sirmium Exactly at that time they mixed up with the Bulgarians and the other tribes, they had children from this mixing and became numerous people Thus, the concept of a common Bulgarian space includes not only Bulgaria of Asparukh in Moesia but also Bulgaria of Kuber in Macedonia.

Instead, they reached a conflict with the Avars, as a result of which 9, Bulgarians, lead by Altzioc, left the state to save themselves in Bavaria. At the beginning the local Herzog accepted them, but then under the pressure by Frankish King Dagobert, most of the Bulgarians were killed.

The survived people, lead by Altzioc found a safe heaven in the beginning in Carinthia, with prince Walluh, later were welcomed by the Longobards and settled in the land, in the Venetian maracas.

Three decades later, in around , another Bulgarian group left the Avars state and settled with the Longobards, in the province of Beneveto. The leader of the earlier, unsuccessful migration, was Alzioc. Whether the two leaders were related or it is a coincidence of names, or the names sound very close, it is not known.

According to the Bulgarian historian D. Angelov, these are two different groups of Bulgarians, and professor V. Beshevliev has reasonable doubt that the survived people of Altzioc could populate many cities in Italy. Migration of people would not leave much trace into the ethnos they migrate to.

Most scientists accept that Altzioc and Altzec were the same person, but Fredegar mistakenly called the unknown leader of the migration with name of the later migration leader Altzec. The German historian Heinrich Kunstmann preposed that the unidentified and unburied remains of 6, people skulls and 47, big bones , found in St.

Florian monastery by the Austrian city of Linz, are the remains of these killed Bulgarians. Written in St. Denis monastery around , it is a compilation of panegyric speeches. In chapter 28, the announcement about the Bulgarians of Altzioc by Fredegar is copied, however, the name of Altzioc is not mentioned; it sais also that all Bulgarians were killed. According to H. Or that the scale of the killings has been vastly exaggerated under the influence of the legend.

A probable reason for he conflict with the Bulgarians was the beginning of the expansion of Dagobert to the East. In he began a war with the state of Samo a Slavic state founded by the merchant Samo , subjugated Bavaria, and founded the kingdom of Thuringia. Probably, the Frankish king was afraid that the Bulgarians would threaten his power in Bavaria. Altzec appeared immediately after the death of Kubrat in , indicating that most probably he was his son, as Theophanos wrote.

At that time, the Herzog of the Bulgarians called Alseco Altzec , for unknown reason, left his people, and in peace came to Italy with all of his army. He met with King Grimuald, promised to serve him, and asked to settle in his country. And the king sent him to Benevento, to his son Romuald, ordering him to meet and help these people by finding a place for them to settle. And they the Bulgarians live in these places until today, and speak both Latin and their own language.

These are all the details on the earliest migrations of the ancient Bulgarians that we found in the Greek and Latin sources. In summary, the Bulgarians were mentioned by all the byzantine historians for the first time during the reigns of the emperors Zeno and Anastassius, when a small group of them settled with the Gepids in Pannonia.

At that time they occasionally attacked and ravaged some of the Balkan provinces without permanently living there. Permanent settlement of the Bulgarians on the Balkans, according to all byzantine sources, took place in , under the Emperor Constantine IV Poqonat. Chronography of b, part Book of generations. Gagloiti Ossetian family and personal names.

Tuleshkov Architectural art of the ancient Bulgarians, vol 2. Cosmas Indicopleustes. Edition of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, vol. English Translation. Memoires historiques et Geographiques sur L'Armenie. Tome second. Oxford University Press. Paul Deacon History of the Longobards, Russian translation.

Volume I. From the Beginning until Jourdan On the origin and deeds of the Geths. Podosinov East Europe in the Roman cartographic traditions, Moscow. European etymology. Takazov Digors-Russian Dictionary, Vladicaucas ww w. Philology and Culture - 1. It is not clear why this author connected the Bulgarians with Achilles. One hypothesis is that it was written at the time when the Bulgarians conquered Thessaly. This is strange because Thessaly has been within the Bulgarian borders only episodically, it was not a typical part of Bulgaria such as Moesia was, for example.

The Achilles connection may have another explanation. And since the Bulgarians established themselves on these lands in the beginning, it is possible that this was the connection with Achilles. Syrian historian and Episcope of Mytilene, Zacharaia Rhetor 5th century wrote interesting details about Bulgarians living north form the Caucasus mountain. Behind the limits of Dadu ddw they live in the mountains, they have fortresses.

Michael the Syrian was a Syrian Jacobite Patriarch. He was born also in Mytilene but lived later than Zacharia Rhetor. At that time, three brothers from Inner Scythia leading 30, Scythians took off. They travelled days through the gorges of the mountain Imeon. They traveled during the winter to look for water, and they reach river Tanais Don which was coming from the Maeotis sea Sea of Azov into the Pontus Sea. And he crossed both rivers Tanais and Danube and asked Emperor Maurice land to live there as an ally of the Empire.

He gave him the Upper and Lower Moesia and Dacia, flourishing countries which were devastated by the Avars during the reign of Emperor Anastassius, and they settled there to defend the byzantine people. Clearly, in this text events from different times are mixed up.

The Avars invasion was 65 years after the coming of Emperor Anastassius. It is reported by Theophilaktos of Simokatta, that in three tribes called Kotzagirs, Tarniachs, and Zabenders, relative to the Avars, run out from the Turkic Khaganate and settled in the Caucasus mountain, and after that they joined the Avars. A question arrises: was there any real migration of a Bulgarian group during the time of the Emperor Maurice? The Bulgarian scientist P. Goliyski proved that there was indeed. Anastassius mentioned by Michael the Syrian was not the Emperor Anastassius but a general from the time of Emperor Maurice with the same name.

John of Nikiu also reported for Anastasius, a famous general during the reign of Maurice. A military reader who lived in the East the Eastern Persian provinces , did not recognize the young shah, and rebelled against him. When Khosrau saw that a large part of the persian people supported Bahram, he asked byzantine Emperor Maurice for help. He sent him a secret letter via the byzantine military commander in Rekafa city in central Syria, on the south bank of the Euphrates. Emperor Maurice sent Khosrau the general of the Thracian troops Joan with 2, troops He sent also 40 talents gold to cover the cost.

Bishop Gregory Bar Hebraeus gave even better information repeating the story of the three brothers migration and adding that this happened during the fourth year of Emperor Maurice reign, i. Thus, during the period of , these Bulgarians settled south of Danube peacefully, as allies of Byzantium it was the Bulgarians in Pannonia who attacked and pillaged llliricum and Thrace at that time.

Michael the Syrian has mixed up two different events: the old migration of Bulgarians, Khazars and a third, unnamed people, probably the Barsils three brothers - three tribes , from the mountain Imeon, and the later migration of a group of Bulgarians who settled as allies in Byzantium.

Particularly useful information reported by Michael the Syrian, is naming the mountain of Imeon as the starting point of the Bulgarian-Khazars migration. One branch of the mountain is spread miles to the west, the other - miles to the north, and the third branch continues to the Unknown land. Almost until the end of the 19th century, the local people thought of the mountain chain made of Fergan, Alai, Kyrghiz, and Kokshetau, as one mountain chain, an extension of Pamir and Hindu Kush, called Bolor.

Thus, from Michael the Syrian we learn that the Bulgarians and the Khazars started their migration from the mountain Imeon, i. This road is known as the.. Military Georgian Road".

These details are important since they indicate that Toraian gates, or Gate of the Turaye, is not Derbent, as it is usually accepted, but Daryal. The ancient road went from the Toraian Gates to the Caspia city, and from there to Daryal. Exactly west of this pass laid the country called Bazgun or Abkhazia. In the Kabardinian version of "The Nart sagas" in the middle reaches of the river Kuban was located area "Barsian Field" - an echo of the toponym Barsilia. These authors seem to be rather biased to their preconceived ideas without vigorous scrutiny of the facts.

Then the Bulgarians invaded Thrace. He also pointed out that during the uprise, the Avars twice invaded the empire reaching the Long Wall of Constantinople, devastating on their way Singidunum, Anchealo, and the whole Ellada, which indicates that these were the Pannonian Bulgarians the Kutrigurs that were under the Avars. Leo Grammaticus also wrote that the Avars, taking advantage of the byzantine mutiny, pillaged Thrace reaching Constantinople.

In: Syrian sources for the history of Azerbaijan, Baku, The Second Kingdom of the Greeks. Translated from Syriac by E. Guzelev, I. The Regions of the World.

A Persian Geography AH. Indo-Aryan inherited lexicon. Veliev Ancient Azerbaijan. Historian-geographical Esseys, Giandglik, Baku. Kosabian Information on the medieval Bulgarian state in ancient Armenian and Syrian sources, Problems of Culture, 4. Greek sources for the History of Bulgaria On the next meeting, he appointed people to lead and to rule them; he sent them wise men and supervisors. Even today the villages there bear the names of his brothers and descendants.

For example, in the French translation of M. Many of them split and came to our country settling for a long time in the fertile, giving bread land of Kol Kot, or Kogh, next to Vanand. The sons of Bagarat were forced to worship his pagan Armenian Gods, two of whom were killed with a sword because of the religion of their father.

I would not hesitate to call them followers of Annanius and Eleasar the two Jews refusing to worship the Babylonian Gods.

The rest of them agreed on the following: to go hunting and to war on Saturday, and not to circumcise their children Arshak ordered not to give them wives from aristocratic naharar families, if they did not refuse the circumcision.

Here the story told by Mar Abas Katina ends. Later, part of the Bulgarians migrated to the land which the Armenian king conquered, and the region where they settled was already called Vanand, after the name of their leader. A little later, during the reign of the next after Arshak king, a second migration took place to the adjacent region called Kol, where Jews were living too.

They married the people of this country, and thus, mixed with the pagans, learned their customs, went to war always together with them; at the end they became one people.

The Khazarian Khagan bound his family to these Jews who were prosecuted in Armenia and who settled in Khazaria. The Armenian authors reported that Jews were living in the country of the Bulgarians. This is a strong indication, that at that time, the Khazars, the Bulgarians and the Barsilians considered themselves one people, one community.

It is not quite clear who Vagharshak was, and what was the situation during his reign. Movses Khorenatsi wrote that Vagharshak ruled for 22 years, and his son Arshak years. In fact, the old military campaigns of Arthashes caused the resistance and the consolidation of many tribes of Dagestan: Udi Udini , Gargars Vainachs, the predecessors of the Inghush and Chechens , Lbins Albans , and Shaki; all of them founded the country of Albania in the Caucasus Atuank, Aghuank, Aghuania.

Keeping these reports in mind, we could conclude that the Bulgarian migration took place in the 2d century BC. For example, in older publications such as "History of Armenia" issued in by V. Abaza in Russian , the author adheres to the chronology of M. Strabo clarified that Artashes defeated Siris i. Artashes fought the northern tribes too - the Sarmatian Siraks Ovses ; it is possible that he moved some of them into the newly acquired land.

According to professor A. Arshak I was the first ethnic Parthian who ruled Armenia more precisely, the second, the first Arshacid the Armenian throne is short ruling Vonon Vonones I Emperor Tiberius sent his protege Tiridates, a Parhtian of nobel origin, to remove Artabanes and take the Parthian throne.

The Iverians or Iberians , who were Georgians, came to help the Romans. The army was lead by Pharasmanes who, meanwhile, became the king of Iberia because his father Mithridates died. Pharasmanes wanted to conquer Armenia and to place his brother, called also Mithtridates after his father , on the Armenian throne. Meanwhile, Pharasmanes managed to organize a plot against Arshak I who was killed in Also, Pharasmanes used Sarmatian tribes as his allies, and let them go through the Caspian Gates Daryal and invade Armenia.

And Pharasmanes put on the Armenian throne his brother Mithridates. In the same time Tiridates succeeded to expel Artaban and to rule Parthia for one year; he is known as Tiridates II With the help of the Dachians and the Sarmatians Dionysius Cassius called them Scythians , Artabanes returned to the throne but could not get Armenia back.

However, soon after that, during the Emperor Caligula , the Romans removed Mithridates from the throne 37 , and chained, sent him to Rome. He ruled until 42, but nothing is known about his governing.

Emperor Claudius freed Mithridates and in 42 put him again on the Armenian throne; Orodes was expelled. Soon afterwards, the relationship between the brothers Pharasmanes and Mithridates worsened. Perhaps Mithridates behaved independently, supporting the interests of the Armenian aristocracy and did not follow his powerful brother.

The Inver king sent his son Rhadamistus to his uncle Mithridates under the pretense that he was running to him but his goal was to organize a plot and kill him. The plot succeeded and Mithridates was killed by his nephew who had the pretense for the Armenian throne. The king of Parthia at that time Vologases Vagharshak took advantage of the situation, and conquered Armenia.

He put his brother Tiridates orTrdates on the throne. Bulgarian scientist P. After Mirvan pacified Georgia, soon this poor country was flooded again by new barbarian invasions from the north by the numerous so-called Balkars.

First they camped in the north along the rivers Malka and Terek but the Scythian people bothered them there, and they crossed the mountain under the leadership of their Vant. They went through the Ossetian land, without stopping they passed Daryal and flooded Georgia.

Their attack was furious, it was impossible to stop them when they reached the banks of river Aragvi, They quickly crossed Georgia without ravaging it, and arrived in Armenia where they settled with the permission of the king of this country, in the region of Antpet Passer or Vanand. Morgan took litterary the information about Vant from S.

Baratoff and his "History of Georgia". He punished them for devastating Iveria. In this case, Sulhan Baratov, who is also cited by Morgan, put together the information from the Armenian M. Khorenatsi and the Georgian sources, and thus connected the two events: the appearance and the invasion of the Alans Scythian people and the Vund migration , which is quite reasonable.

However, all these events took place at least a century later. Dionysus Cassius wrote about a letter of Tiberius to the king of Iveria urging him to invade Armenia, and chase the Parthians away from there. The next invasion of the Alans was in 32 72, at the end of the rule of the Armenian king Trdat.

According to Flavius, the Alans had a new weapon - the lasso arkana. Flaving this information in mind, Yu. Gagloiti concluded that the Scythian used by the Iverians in 35 were the Alans, which indirectly was confirmed by Flavius describing the second campaign of the Alans in 72, which was a completely different action.

According to Yu. Gagloiti, the attack beyond the Caucuses was in 35, the first known big military campaign of the Alans in northern Caucuses. The main part of them migrated to Pannonia. These people under the names of Assiags and Issedons or Essedons were known in the West Caucases; they probably became the main part of the later eastern tribes called Essegels.

Thus, there were Sarmatians that were allies to Armenia. Judging from the events that followed, one could think that in 35 or a little earlier, the the Bulgars of Vand, under the pressure of the Alans and the Yasigs who were allies of the Romans and the Iverians, peacefully migrated to Armenia not as enemies, allies of the Iverians or Tiberius where they asked first Vonon or Artashes III Zenon for land to settle on, in the region of Kars Eastern Turkey today ; later, right before he was killed in a plot, they asked Arshak I to settle in the region of Kol.

There were uprises in the Caucasus during the reign of Arshak - the march of Ivers, Romans, Sarmatians, Alans against Armenia and the migration of the Alans from the land around the Sea of Azov to the northern slopes of the Caucuses, as well as Central Caucuses.

According to A. Tuallagov, N. Armenian - as "gh" gad. For the purposes of our story about when were the Bulgarians mentioned first, we have to describe the short reign of king Vonon. He lived for many years in Rome where he was educated. They fought against each other, Vonon lost in this war and run away from the country.

Then the Armenian aristocrats naharars received him, and offered him their throne which was unoccupied at that time since the old Artashessian or Artaxiad dynasty was interrupted after the death of Tigranes IV.

All of them were related to the Artashesid dynasty. The short reign of Vonon was the starting point of the Arshakid dynasty in Armenia, as all the Armenian historians wrote unanimously.

In the Armenian sources he was described under the name of Vagharshak, the first Armenian king of Arshakid origin. Later, Vonon was moved to Cilicia but in 19, in an attempt to escape, he was killed by the guards. He was king of Parthia in and king of Armenia After his death, Artaban put his son Arshak, as a second ethnical Parthian, on the Armenian throne. This is how the legendary images of Vagharshak Vonon and Arshak, son of Artaban, as the first Arkashids in Armenia, came to be known.

Their rule was short and not very significant, and because of that the Armenian historians attributed the deeds of Artashes the Great and Trdat the Brave Trdat I , to Vagharshak Vonon , just as they wrote that Arshak I prosecuted the Christians, when this was done by Sanatruk I, who reigned after Trdat. Khorenatsi himself clearly stated the information about Vagharshak and his son Arshak, i.

Then the Armenian aristocrats naharars received him, and offered him their throne which was unoccupied at that time since the old Artashessian or Artaxiad dynasty was interrupted after the death of Tigranes IV. All of them were related to the Artashesid dynasty. The short reign of Vonon was the starting point of the Arshakid dynasty in Armenia, as all the Armenian historians wrote unanimously. In the Armenian sources he was described under the name of Vagharshak, the first Armenian king of Arshakid origin.

Later, Vonon was moved to Cilicia but in 19, in an attempt to escape, he was killed by the guards. He was king of Parthia in and king of Armenia After his death, Artaban put his son Arshak, as a second ethnical Parthian, on the Armenian throne. This is how the legendary images of Vagharshak Vonon and Arshak, son of Artaban, as the first Arkashids in Armenia, came to be known.

Their rule was short and not very significant, and because of that the Armenian historians attributed the deeds of Artashes the Great and Trdat the Brave Trdat I , to Vagharshak Vonon , just as they wrote that Arshak I prosecuted the Christians, when this was done by Sanatruk I, who reigned after Trdat.

Khorenatsi himself clearly stated the information about Vagharshak and his son Arshak, i. After that, he told the Armenian history beginning with Artashes I, describing him as the son of Arshak. In this way, the two dynasties Artashesids and Arkashids were presented as one - Arkashid. Hence, the combining the personality and the deeds of the real restorer of the Armenian kingdom into the image of Vagharshak is quite understandable.

And this demonstrates that, before Map Abas Katina mentioned it as recorded by Khorenatsi , the Bulgarians already were living in West Caucuses, near Daryal pass, probably century earlier!

To make out statement on the origin of the Bulgarians even more precise, we have to mention other reports as well. Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo besieged Tigranakert located close to Diyarbakir in Kurdish Turkey today , but it was clear that the Armenians were ready for a prolonged siege. Accidentally, the head fell in the center of a meeting that the barbarians the Armenians and their allies held.

Next to his tent, a barbarian of a prominent family was caught. After they tortured him, he confessed that he was supposed to kill him and betrayed all of his accomplices. Then people sent by the besieged Tigranakert came and declared that they will open the gates of the city. To soften his heart, the citizens of Tigranakert sent Carbulo a golden wreath. However, when the Romans went toward the city, the gates were closed. The Carbulo beheaded the prominent captive and shot his head with a banister to scare the people in the city.

Thus, the two sources complement each other: Sextus Frontine mentioned his name, Vanand, while Tacitus described how he was captured - at the mission for removal of Carbulo. The name means "Winner of Darkness" or "Winner of evil. Justi In the Kushans, the name Vanando, means winner. Pliny the Elder wrote that Carbulo troops reached Armenia through the Caspian gates which is in Iveria. In the middle of this pass is the Dirikdon, i.

In fact, Pliny pointed to the same pass about which centuries later Zacharaia Rhetor and M. It is logical that Romans would go through this pass since at that time Iveria was their ally. The war with the Romans and their allies, the Iverians, lasted for 10 years. In 63 Trdat gained the throne again, and at the end the Parthians won with the Randean peace treaty. With the established peace with Rome the Parthian dynasty became lawful on the Armenain throne, but formally the country was a Roman vassal.

Practically, their politics was entirely connected with Pathia. Khorenatsi and H. Drakhsanakertsi reported prosecutions of the Jews. He did not obey and fell in disgrace. The next ruler, Arshak, according to Khorenatsi, killed two of the Bagarat sons because they refused to reject the Jewish faith.

Exactly at that time the turmoil between the Bulgarians took place. Vanad was executed during king Trdat and According to G. Melkonian, and S. Under Abgar who ruled Armenia from 13 to 50, the Christianity was tolerated but under the king after Trdat, Sanatruk I , there were prosecutions and executions of Christians.

Stamatov wrote in the Bulgarian literature. Respectively, the neighboring Arachia and Artaza will be Hark and Artas, new names used instead of the old Shavarshan or Shavarshakan. It is well known that the region of Artas, next to Vanand, was named by the Alans, a large group of whom settled in this place.

Such a region Artos, Ardos can be found around the wells of river Terek. Most of the historians, Yu. Gagloiti, V. Kuznetsov, T. Gabuev, wrote that this migration of the Alans happened in the period between the two big marches against the Armenians or between AD. This happened probably during the 1st-2d centuries, but it took at least years before the new names were firmly established. It is very important to clarify when exactly lived M. He was mentioned by Sebeos 7th century as Maraba Mtsurins philosopher, indicating that he was from the city of Mtsurin.

It was chosen to be the capital of Armenia in 62 after Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo destroyed Artaxshat, the capital of Trdat. In the 2d century Mtsurin suffered an earthquake, but it was rebuilt and expanded by Sanatruk , the possible successor of Trdat, and in 4th century was destroyed again this time by the Persians during the march of Shapur in Thus, the palace of Sanatruk was in Mtsurin, not in Mtsibin.

Mar Abas Katina lived in the period when Mtsurin was the capital. Saakian proved that the information of Movses Khorenatsi about the city of Mtsibin is actually about the city of Mtsurin. For this reason, Saakian thinks that the city of Mtsurin in the region of Taron was the real capital of Armenia, after it was additionally built by Sanatruk, and all the information about Mtsibin must be related to Mtsurin.

Sebeos had used various sources which possibly explains the confusion. He himself mentioned that he relied on the information by M. Khorenatsi also indirectly pointed out that the center of the country during the first Arshakids was Taron, with its main city of Mtsurin. For this reason, he sent them to live in the region of Hashteank and the adjacent valley, outside Taron… And only his first born son……and his son i. From this follows that the capital indeed was in the region of Taron.

Many other authors have connected it either with Masur Cairo or Mosul Iraq , but they have missed one small but important detail, that Sasun region was next to the city of Masur, i.

Sasun used to be part gavar of the Great Armenia, but later it was conquered by the Arabs, then it was a semi-independent until the Turks came. In this case, Masur is the arabic version of the Armenian Mtsurin. Ukhtanes Sebastatsi, presented this name as Mariba Katina. Saakian also explains the name of the mythical Vagharshak at his time the Bulgarians of Vund came logically in the same way as Khorenatsi himself did: since Vagharshak II ordered Marab to establish the past of the Armenian kings, most likely he was the first Arshakid on the Armenian throne.

Thus, the name of Vagharshak became known as the first ruler of the Arshakid dynasty. In reality, however, the mythical Vagharshak corresponds to king Trdat who was put on the throne by his brother - the king of Parthia Vologes Vagharshak who chronologically, was not the first Arshakid, but was the first ruler who firmly established the dynasty on the Armenian throne. Sebeos presented the first Arshakid both as a brother and a son of the king of Parthia.

Khorenatsi, just like Stepanos Taronetsi and Ukhtanes Sebastatsi, wrote that Vagharshak was put on the Armenian throne directly by his brother Arshak the Great, the king of Parthia, while Vardan the Great wrote that Vagharshak was a son of Arshak the Great. Saakian reached the logical conclusion that Marab Mar Abas Katina or Marab, the philosopher of Mtsurin lived in Mtsurin, the capital of Armenia in the second half of the second century; he was a secretary or writer which his name Katina means , and a book keeper oclose to Vagharshak II Some authors claim that Vagharshapat was built by Vagharshak I , however, the Romans Statius Priscus, Dionysos Cassius wrote that the city was in the area of Vardges, was founded in by the Roman, and Roman troops were camping there until He also built Vagharshavan in the area of Bassenan, along the upper river Arks now in Turkey, between the villages of Hassankala and Erzurum but this city has never been a capital.

Khorenatsi wrote that he was sent to Nineveh, the ancient capital of Assyria, to study the archives of the kings. This is the main argument of those scientists who deny the existence of Mar Abas Katina or place him in a different time period 3d-4th century , as a result they accused M.

Khorenatsi in anachronism. In this way, the first mentioning of Vund was placed in the 4th century. The confusion of the time frames of these events can be seen also in the works of another author, Vardan the Great. Khorenatsi also wrote that Mar Abas Katina learned everything about the Armenian kings in the archives in Edessa, which Abgar brought from Mtsbin Mtsurin , he wrote even that he had seen these archives.

Thus we have a contradiction: on one hand Mar Abas Katina studied the archives in Nineveh in the library of Assyrian king Ashurbanipal , which did not exist at that time, and on the other site, he studied them in the archives in Edessa during the time of Khorenatsi , he himself saw them. Thus, the real events from the 2d century were placed in much older context. Perhaps, the imaginary mission of Marab Mtsurin in the non-existent Nineveh was reported only to stress the ancient history of the Armenian kingdom and its rulers.

The author is unknown, it is considered to be written in the 7th century, but the original has been lost, and only a copy is known, published by T. Mihrdatian in in Constantinople. Mihrdatian got the document from bishop Yovhannes Shahxatunian who discovered the book in the library in Ejmiatsin in The information in this book was from Movses Khorenatsi and mostly Sebeos, which makes it look as a compilation, although there are a few differences in opinion.

Here, Mtsurin is reported as the earliest capital. It becomes clear from this book that Mtsurn or Mtsurin was the capital of Armenia at that time. The anonymous author has avoided the mistake of the other historians.

At the time of Trdat I, Adiabena was an independent state. This is an indication that even if Mtsbin was within Armenia, as it used to be at the time of Tigran II the Great 55 BC , it would be a city at the border, a highly inappropriate place for a capital. Another indirect fact that is impressive is written also by Sebeos. Citing the book of Marab Mtsurin, he explained that in the palace of Sanatruk, there was a stone plate with inscribed names of five Armenian and Parthian kings who ruled before him.

Behind it, in the gorges of the Caucasus, live the Sarmatian people of Epagerites, and next to them - Sauromats. This is the tribe where Mithridates found refuge at the time of Clauduis, and from him we learn about the neighboring tribe, the Tallis which migrated to the East of the Caspian gulf that went dry at low tide.

Alexander was amazed that these people were descendants of the Ieuseians. At that time he could not conquer them. Then another militaristic tribe, called Honni, came and asked the king of the Bunturks to settle in Zanavi. Only after Alexander returned, besieged Sarkin, and threw out the Bunturks from that place. According to the author of the Russian translation E. Takaishvili, Bundurks means Turks-spearmen. However, none of these interpretations could be accepted.

Khorenatsi although it is well established that the unknown Georgian author used the work of Khorenatsi among the other sources, and also the Georgian chronicles are from the time of Vahtang Gorsaval ruling around Sarkin was close to the city of Mtsheti, at the merge of the rivers Kura and Aragvi, and north from the valley of river Aragvi the gorge on the river Terek Daryal can be reached. Urbanisi was located in the region of Shida-Kartly at the border with Ossetia , on the left bank of river Kura, 10 km from Gori.

Today it is a village, but in the antiquity and early medieval times it used to be an important administrative and cultural center. Odsdrah or Ordshos was a city in the region of Samtshe-Djavahetia, located at the border with Armenia, and cities with the name of Zanavi are in the region of Borjomi and in Samtshe-Djahavetia. The novel information here is that not only the Bunturks but also the Kipchaks lived along the river Kura.

The Bunturks dug through the mountain in the north stone by stone, and made the pass through which they escaped to the Caucases leaving the empty city to Alexander. Khorenatsi, like other Armenian authors, thought of them as one person, and wrote that this king re-built the city of Vardkesavan with high walls, and called it after himself Vagharshapat Echmiadsin today.

Khorenatsi wrote that the information about these events he borrowed from the Syrian Bardatsan These barbarian attacks were mostly against Media, only the Roman might saved Armenia and Cappadocia form them. The confusion stems from the fact that at that time Parthia was ruled by Vologes II who was in perpetual war with his brothers for the throne. He ruled in the eastern provinces of Parthia until his death in AD. In the following years, some of the aristocrats in the west rebelled against him, and requested from the Armenian king to put his son on the throne instead of Amasp.

In this case, Khosrov I was mixed with his grandson Khosrov II who saved the last of the Arshakids after their dynasty in Parthia fell, and who fought successfully with the first Sassanid ruler Artashir I Papakan, not with his son Shapur I. If the rebellion of the western aristocrats happened at the beginning of the Khosrov I reign, i.

It is accepted that Amasp II ruled over Kartly from His successor and nephew, Rev I , was put on the throne by the rebelled aristocrats.

The names of these tribes were given strictly as they were in M. Khorenatsi, but the author makes it clearer: they were Sarmatians. Agatangel called the invaders masakha-hona, Movses Khorenatsi wrote that Trdat went through the land of the Albans to meet with the attacking northern people. Khorenatsi described the even with more details. Trdat reached the Gargarayan plain Steppe of Kharabahs , on the right bank of river Kura, and clashed with the Barsilis.

The Armenian king challenged the king of the Barsilis and killed him cutting him in two with his sword. After that, the Barsilis retreated without a fight. Glak called the unfortunate ruler of the Barsilis - the king of the Northern Tedrehon. Both M. Khorenatsi and Stepanos Torenatsi, described in details the fight between the two kings.

Although the exact time of the acceptance of the Christianity by the Armenians is debatable, there are other sources of information about these events. This biography, describing life in the 5th century, was written originally in Greek, later it was translated in Syrian. It tells us the story of the Byzantine aristocrat Pharasman, a Georgian by his origin. He was a high official in the palace of Emperor Arcadius He was thrown out of the palace because of a love affair with Empress Eudoxia, and found a refuge in Iveria.

It shows that perhaps he was connecting directly the Barsilis with the Bulgarians. This is confirmed by the Syrian authors as well, who placed the Bulgarians in the land of Barsilia. It is about the division of Armenia in between Persia and Byzantium. They did not support neither of the Armenian sides, and retreated in the mountainous regions of Taik. They attacked the lands of both Armenian kings disturbing our country.

Sakhak, Armenian leader and subordinate to Khosrov, attacked them killing many, and the rest were thrown out of the borders of the Fourth Armenia.

But they did not go to live with the Greeks, nor with Arshak, they found a save heaven with some people within the Fourth Armenia, at the border with Syria. The Vanandans took a pleasure in destructive activities thinking that this was fair and even pleasurable. Sakhak prosecuted them for a long time, and finally succeeded to throw them out to the borders of Mananali" Terdjan in Turkey today.

A little later, the Vanandans that were completely armenianized or Vund Bulgarians, living in Vanand , already Christians, participated in the rebellion of Vardan Mamukonian against the rule of the Sassanids Persians. Nicholas Adonz also wrote about river Pulk that flows into Eufrates, apparently going through the the same region and keeping its name until 19th century. Goliyski wrote that this name was since the time when the Bulgarians settled there after the prosecution by Sakhak.

Here, the Bulgarians were called Sarmatians! The basic information about the Bulgarians in the Caucuses comes from the Armenian geography Ashkharatsuyts of 7th century. It survived until today thanks to multiple copies made at different time by unknown writers. Five rivers come from these mountains and flow into the Maeotic sea.

From the Caucuses come two rivers, Valdanis and Psewcheros or Psychrus. Psewcherus divides Bosporus the Cimmerian Bosporus from these places, where the city of Nikops is located. These names were unknown to Ptolemy. Forty six 46 tribes live in this lands. Among those, under 8 are the Baslians Barsils , strong people, 9 are the Khazars, 10 the Bushkh Bulgars who used to come here in the winter for the pastures living on an island between the rivers Rhimica and Atl Volga.

Ptolemy called this island Grav. It used to become black when so many people came here with their herds. The sleeves of river Atl merge behind the island and reach Caspian sea thus dividing Sarmatia and Scythia.

After that the Caucuses are divided in two parts, one where the Shirvan and Horvan people live, near Horsvem at the Caspian sea.

The other part is where the river Arm Armnay begins, goes straight to the north, and merges with Atl flowing to the northeast. To the north of this mountain, the Mazkuts Mazgutes or Massagetae live in the field of Vardanian Plane north of Derbent next to the Caspian sea.

At this point the mountain reaches the sea where the Derbent wall is and the city of the pass Chor, a big fortress built in the sea. To the north of Derbent, close to the sea, is the kingdom of the Hones, to the west in the Caucuses are the cities of the Hones Varajan, and also Chungars and Msndr Semender.

Their king is called Khagan, and the queen - the wife go the Khagan - Khatun. The main text of the Ashkharatsuyts was written probably in the 7th century by Annania Shirakatsi, and we have today only later copies of it dated not earlier than the middle of the 10th century.

This text presents the geographic reality of that time Francs in Galia, Goths and Slavs in Thrace, the city of Basra, the name of Crimea as a property of Christians, etc.

This author attempted to prove that this geography can not be related to M. Khorenatsi and his time 5th century at all, because of the many different geographic realities of later times described in the book. Professor K. Patkanian, who translated the book in Russian, reached the same conclusion.

In the short edition of the Ashkharatsuyts, the Bulgarians are mentioned only once as neighbors of the Barsilis and the Khazars. Three layers of information regarding the Bulgarians are observed in the expanded edition of the Ashkharatsuyts. Shirakitsi himself he died around but by somebody else at a later time.

The second layer is probably the oldest, ancient, and relates to the mention the Purk people who's location coincides with the location of the Epageritis of Plynii, the Burgars of Zaharias Rhetor, and the Purgurs of Michael the Syria, i. Notes to the interpretation of the names in "Ashharatsuyts" Ceraunes mounts - In Armenian "Shantayin".

For ancient authors is the Caucasus region, east of Mount Kazbek. So called covered with eternal snow high mountain located between Nalchik and Vladikavkaz Vladicaucasus separates Balkaria and Digoria. Of its glaciers began river Psekan-su, a tributary of the river Terek.

In Georgian ts'kheni, Armenian dzi - horse, words are Abkhazian-Adyghian borrowings. Proper location of Horsehead Mountain in Bulgarian and world literature is made for the first time by Peter Dobrev, and this is his undoubted merit! Since modern Ossetian not use the sound "sh" Adyghian Shugan is transformed into Sugan. In the description of Europe, this mountain is reported as "Bulgarian Mountain": "In Thrace has two mountains and rivers. One is the Danube, which is divided into six branches and forms a lake and island called Pyuki.

On this island lived Aspar-hruk son of Hubrat who escaped from Khazirs, from the "Bulgarian Mountain" came and drove the people of the Avars in the west and settled there. Valdanis - Vardanes, or Kuban from Osset. Identification with raven probably become secondary in Georgian qorani - raven. Today, the representatives live in the fortified Hatukay located on the confluence of rivers Laban and Kuban.

That probably the clan Hatukayan are those enclosures are supported by their medieval name - Kodaykoy, according to the description of Giovanni de Luca of the 17 century.

Pitinunt Pityus — mod. Budba word "city" does not exist in the original text, and editor Arsen Sukriyan, adds it to its publication and translation of "Ashharatsuyts" in Venice in then was copied verbatim translation of Patkanyan - In the case mentioned only toponym Pisinun Pisinown , and Sukryan not consider that it is a city Pitsunda and added in parentheses the word "city". Budba believes that this passage should read: "between Bulgarians and the Pontic Sea, live peoples Gashk, Kutians and Swans to Pisinun - waterfront of Avazians".

He believes that "pisinun" is distorted Armenian transcription of "Apsni" the self-the name of Abhasaans, ie talking about Abkhazia. Of course, this statement does not change the geographical landmarks for Bulgarians - West Caucasus: mod. Balkaria and Digoria. Apshils - Abkhaz tribe apsua, apchioh, abyuis, the inhabitants of Tsebelda. Vishap - in Armenian river of the Dragon.

Equated with mod. River Kodori. Kodor in Abkhazian legends is the name of the great dragon, who are called and the river gorges. In Abkhaz Kodor no convincing explanation. According to another Dragon River is river Pichora, which flows into the river Rioni.

In ancient Greek sources mention it as river Dokon. Rhimica - Rhimnici mountes, or the Stavropols Heights. Grav — "black island", and most likely part of the Caspian Sea, bounded by the ancient bed of river Kalaus and the delta of river Volga.

Grave probably comes from the Latin gravis - large, wide or too low, dull, ie tucked, final. Gerrus - River Samur in East Caucasus. In Herodotus Gerrhus — river in European Sarmatia. Alonta — river Terek, the name Alonta means river of Alans. Ardos - area in Central Ossetia. The name means mountain meadow. Bulgarian word from Protobulgarian Origin.

Meets modern area Babadag in Romania North Dobrogea. Paris, , p. Drashanakhertsi History of Armenia. Golb, O. Pritsak Khazarian-Jewish documents of 10th century.

Tiflis Tbilisi , p. Ethnical composition of Caucusian Albania. Melikishvili, O. Lordkipanidse, Tbilisi, Academy of Sciences of Georgia.

Bagrationi History of Georgia. Mroveli Kartlis Tshvovreba. Lives of the kings of Kartly. S Bahrah. Gagloiti Alanika. Daryal Journal. Russian translation A.

Tacitus Annals, small works, History. K Dibvoys Political History of Parthia. English translation V. Collection of descriptions of places and tribes in the Caucuses. On the origin of the Bagratids. Kuznetsov Essays on the History of the Alans. Saakian The capital Mtsurn and the historiographer Marab of Mtsurn. Into Armenian language. Translated by H. Rackham vols. Jones vols. Eichholz vol. General History.

Moskow Book 3. Butba Works. Transation from the ancient Georgian Language by E. Goliiski Armenia and the Iranian world. Tangra-Tanakra, Sofia. Djafarov Huns and Azerbajan. A Dictionary of the Iranian Verb. Kovalevskaya The Caucuses and the Alans. Centuries and People. Skhatum On the time of migration of the Yazigs to the Caucuses.

Historian Archeological Album. Volkova Ethnonyms and tribal names. Veliev The ancient, ancient Azerbajan. Hisrtorical geographical essays, Baku. In: Natural History by Pliny. Translated in Russian Aliev Ancient sources on the history of Azerbaijan, Baku. Victor Langlois. Tome — 1, Paris. Armenia in the age of Justinian. This tribe represents the largest Bulgarian group living along the upper and middle parts of river Kuban, and, as it is said in Ashkharatsuyts, the name comes from the name of the river where these people lived.

The river had a more popular name at that time — Valdanis Osset. This indicates that the name was added later. Similar observation was made by another author, K. It is not clear why this tribe was called Kupi or Kuphis, since in the Ashkharatsuyts text Kuban river was called Valdanis. The name Kuphis is known as consumed for the first time in "Ravena cosmograph". The ethnonyms Vnndr and Nndr is used in the Arab geographical descriptions.

To the south of it, the people of Vnndr live Danube Bulgaria who are Christians. The Carpathian mountain in Transylvania is the first border between the Magyars Hungary and the First Bulgarian kingdom after Magyars migration to Pannonia and Transylvania in the end of the 9th century. The Hungarians called the Bulgarians Nandors. The city has never been in the borders of medieval Serbia!

Peter Goliyski. I think that may be given another explanation. We assume that M. Khorenatsi or Maraba Mtsurin have completely surrendered the ethnonym. The explanation comes from the Tocharian languages.

So the words "vlandur" and "venenetri" - "unogundurs" are completely different! And from here, with a superficial look at Moeses Khorenantsi, declared to be an unreliable source, and with a certain tightening in the direction of the Onogur, Austro- Hungarian turkologists and historians created one of the most enduring mistaken myths of Bulgarian origin!

Douglas Adams. Members of the Wen clan ruled the countries founded by the Yuezhis, in all of the Central Asia. Baxter ; the last charaster means ruler, kniaz. Bichurin translated it as guard, escort, and V. Taskin as a military camp comparing it with the Turkic ordu.

The Chinese chronicles wrote that Wen was the ruling family of the Yuezhis and their descendants in the old lands of the province of Gansu and the Central Asia. Apparently, the Bulgarians, or at least their ruling nucleus, were part of this community. They were noticed already by the Armenians and by Pliny Junior in the beginning of the 1st century in the Caucuses, simultaneously with the migration of the Yuezhi to Central Asia in the middle of the 2d century BC BC.

At the end, they reached the Caucuses as a Sarmatian tribe. This is another semantically close derivative of the same Indo-European root, and glorious, glorified, that is a good, reliable, etc.

Later, it became a second ethnonym for the ancient Bulgarian community. This name has completely different origin from the names for the Onogurs or Huns, they have nothing in common, and they must not be mixed.

Olhontor-Bolkhar or Blkhar migrants. At that time X - XI c. The logical explanation was that "volhontor" is another form of the first mention of the Bulgarian by M. And it shows that vlandur and unghundurs other words. The author of this passage in Ashharatsuyts meant exactly Bulgarians Vand, resettled in Armenia. Marquart to connect it to the name of river Dnepr - Kocho.

This random idea of J. Marquart was further developed by F. After that, M. Artamanov connected the name Kocho with the name of river Kuzo, mentioned by K. Bagrianorodni, which in fact is the final estuary where rivers Bug, Ingul, and Dnepr fall.

Nothing is known about the origin and the localization, but could be a toponym. Goliyski related it to the area of the Duchi village located on the river Aksakai in Chechnya. The name can be related to the name of Tushi identical with the Tustsi of Ptolemy, or the Tushins from Tushetia, southeast from Daryal at the border with Chechnya, but these people are Batsbians relative to the Chechens and Inghush.

They called themselves Dukhs-as, Dakhs-as, i. It is possible that these are Bulgarians who later melted with the Alans. A relation may exist also to the Dakhi tribes from Mangishlak in mod. Kazakhstan and the Aral sea, who came to the region together with the Alans. This issue is questionable and remains unresolved at this point.

Chdar Kithar Bulkhar. Sukrian and D. Lang consider the Kithar-Bulkhars as Kotrags. The name Kithar-Bulkhar could be some local toponym or unknown ethnonym.

For example, in the Lakian region of Dagestan there is a village Kittur, and next to it another one - Kubra, a very similar to the Bulgarian name Kuber. Then the tale is about the conquering of Khadar through treason, using poisonous food because of the strong resistance of the people. The author made it clear that Semend er is the city Tarkhi today is within the city Makhachkala, capital of Dagestan.

The city of Balkh was built by the river Irhanchay or Koisu in the Kumuks country. The governor of Balkh was Endirey daruga today Andreyaul. Ibn Al Nasir wrote that after he took Belendger-Bulkhar, Salman went to another city, called Vabandar with 40, homes. Artamonov also reached the conclusion that Bulgarians lived in northern Dagestan in the early medieval times. According to Artamonov, Bulgar-Balkh lived in the splendid city Varachan mentioned also by Movses Khagankatvatsi, the main city of the Hones- Savirs, situated to the north of Derbent.

For this reason, Zacharia Rhetor wrote that among the people of the Caucuses, were the Abdels and the Hephtalites. Most likely, Kithar-Bulkhar and Bakhli-Khadar were the same people, descendants of the migrants Kidarits. The Persians destroyed their country in and they had to migrate to the Caucuses where they mixed with the local Bulgarians. In Dagestan today, there is a village Balkhar Akushk region where ancient tradition of pottery still exists.

This similarity is not at all accidental, just like the similarity between the name of the Balkhar village and the name of Bulgaria. Annotations Nandor - Hungarians and Romanians there personal name Nandor occurring is the Bulgarians - Nandro today reserved surname Nandrov i.

Ordu - Turk. Ramstedt assumed borrowing from another language Shterbak. Is also Tocharian origin, see in Toch. Goliyski clearly indicate that reading Aguandria, Aguandur used in some Russian translation is completely wrong, since the letter in mod.

Constantine Porphyrogenitus also called the Bug River - Kuzo, and the very name of Bug Alans-Sarmatian orirgin and means the same - a meandering river.

Ihran - For localization of the Ihran has two hypotheses. According to one that is Auhar - land of Caucasian Avars in Dagestan as the rivers coming from Georgia, passed through it. The river Koysu passes in Darginian village Tsudahar in Levashinskiy district and is located km from Makhachkala. The other is stated by A. A Tuallagov and B.

In Italian map of the fourteenth century. Kuban is Situated on the country Irkania by the same name they bear and two cities of Kuban and Don. In this case of the former lands of "Irons" West Dagestan settled later than Lak people and Lezghins. According to the text of "Derbent-name", namely the river Ihranchay, ie Avars-Koysu, lies the city of Balkh in Kumuk country.

Today at the time of Aktashi, chroniclers, who lived in the 17th century. Hunza - similar Hunza people, part of the Burushaski Language dwells in the region of Gilgit and Chitral, indicating that the Hunza in Dagestan are migrants from Central Asia, caught in sravnitleno linguistic kinship environment Sino-Caucasian language family.

Balkh — the word Balkh, should not be associated with the city of Balkh in Bactria, as naively believes P. So Bulkari-Balk much more likely meant "Bulgarian city. The ceramics of the territory between the rivers Terek and Sulak is one of the earliest examples of so-called. Saltovo- Mayaks type. Literature Sources and Further Reading V.

Butba On the semantics of the Bulgarian ethnonyms. Zahoder Caspian data on East Europe. Goliyski Goliyski The Bulgarians in the Caucuses and Armenia. Maliavkin Tansk Chronicles of the Central Asian countries. Marquart Osteuropische und Ostasiatische Schtreifzugen. Leipcig, p. Juansheriani Life of Gorgasal Vachtang.

Litkin, E. Guliaev Short etymological dictionary of the Komi language. Lubotsky Indo-Aryan Inheritance lexicon. Bigolaev, K. Gagkaev, N.

Kulaev, O. Tuaeva Ossetian-Russian Dictionary, Vladicaucus. Takazov Digor-Russian Dictionary. Vladicaucus www. Harmatta Studies in the History and Language of the Sarmatians. Goliyski Tarim and Bactria. Ancient Turkic Dictionary Fedotov Etymological Dictionary of the Chuvashian Language, vol.

The Purks were neighbors to the Alans in the Ardos gorge, and also to the Adiges - Tsahui tsadshi or tsashi , Georgians-rachans Racha is a mountainous region in Georgia neighboring Ossetia to the east , Duals or Dwals , tsanars, where Daryal pass is. The Purs lived in Barsilia, and probably from there Vund and his people migrated to Armenia. There are some memories for these people remained in the Ossetian legends and tales. Their country was called Burka.

They lived there before the Ossetians but scattered because of starvation, diseases and natural disasters. Their name was related to the Ossetian bur meaning bright, yellow, color of the wheat.

In other legends they were called Tsartsiates. Purk were located between the Zikhis and Tsanars, which means that they lived in the Mozdok plane that goes all the way to the Black Sea. This is the territory of the contemporary Northern Ossetia and Kabardino-Balkaria. In support of the above considerations, Khagan Joseph, in a letter to Hasdai Ibn Shafrut, wrote about the city of Burk located in the West end of his state.

The Klin-Yar necropolis belonged to the people that lived there, and they were ancient Bulgarians and Alans. Nearby, in the Koltso-gora region, Saltovo-Mayatsk settlements were uncovered. The Bulgarians and the Alans are part of the Saltovo-Mayatsk archeological culture.

In the region of Kislobodsk, ancient Bulgarian necropolis was discovered. This region had a dense population. In the 1st-3d centuries there was a system of well built settlements that defended the valley of Kislovodsk. This is the Khazarian city Burk, a Bulgarian ethnonym.

Zikhians settled along the coast of the Euxinus Pontus…. Behind them, the Saginians live. Before, the coastal part of their land belonged to the Romans After that there are one hundred and fifty stadia until Nitika Gagra today ,… From Nitika to river Abaska related to the people Abasgs there are ninety stadia, and Borgis is a hundred and twenty stadia from Abask.

The third mentioning of this toponym is by Agatius. The forth mentioning is in 4th century by Plano Karpini. In the Russian linguistic literature the ethnonym Bruhs is connected with Ubikhs, part of the Abkhazians. This river flows east to its mouth into river Podkumok, a big tributary to river Kuma. One of the tributaries of river Hods, that flows into river Laba, a big tributary of river Kuban, has a similar name - Bugundge.

The rise of Bundg is close to the springs of river Msimta. Statement that Bruhs are Ubihs who lived at the springs of river Msimta, can not explain the names of the mountain Burgustan and river Burgunta that are further north in the area of Kislovodsk and Piatigorsk! Dobrev has an interesting hypothesis that behind the Bruhs in question is actually the Bulgarian ethnonym.

This means that Procopius got the information from a local informer. Because of the similar region where they lived, at the border between the Abasg and the Alans, Novoseltsev, who did research on the Khazars, identified Bruhs as Bulgarians. Apparently, this was the region where the Bulgarians lived originally.

From there, different groups of them migrated to the west during the 4th-6th centuries. Specific description of the location of the four Bulgarian tribes "Ashharatsuyts" is a later addition. Comparing, their location, the location of people Purk, seen clear migration from Central to South Caucasus, which happened after the settlement of Alans! Some of them were called Kutrigurs, others Utigurs, Ultilisurs, and also Vurugunds… Ultilisurs and Vurugunds were considered the mightiest and best known by the Romans at the time of emperor Leo I According to some researchers e.

These are the Laks or Lak, people of Dagestan. Jakob Reyneggs visited the Caucuses and wrote down a legend about the origin of the Laki. They told him that their ancestors used to live north of India in the ancient times, but later they migrated to the Caucuses and lived in the mountain and the land spread to the river Don. However, the Khazars conquered them and forced them to live in the land of Dagestan. For example, the people in the city Balkh or Erindey-daruga today village Endirey in Dagestan came from Horasan.

Today this city is an archeological object, Andrey-aul, where traces of early medieval settlement and necropolis have been found; the burials are of Alan, Bulgarian and Khazar type.

Balkh corresponds to the cited by the Arab sources Bulkar-Balk literary it means Bulgarian city or Burgur not to be mixed with the Burgustan in West Caucuses , one of the big cities of Khazarian state.

In Dagestan, the land of the Laki, is the village Balhar, known for their pottery that is very similar to some pottery in Bulgaria kunars and krondirs dishes, see Figure Later, they were assimilated but the name was kept as Vulungs or Bulegs. It is not clear when they migrated to Dagestan. It is possible it happened after the Khazars defeated king Kubrat when some Bulgarians were forced to move, or they came earlier during their original migration.

Therefore those "Burugundi" no direct connection with these events and can not be Hephthalites. Their appearance in Caucasus coincides with the defeat of the Persians in Kidarites of , from Shah Peroz grandfather of Khosrov.

This likely their migration west, mentioned in the previous chapter. For the hypothetical link Kidarites-Bulgari, see. Next chapter! Stepanov cited a not well known fact about the Bulgarians living in the West Caucuses. From the same text we learn that Bulgarians lived also on the east coast of Black Sea by the river Phasis. This river comes from the West Caucuses, the Svanet hills. Dobrev speculates that these Bulgarian believers were from the time of king Kubrat who was a Christian.

Someone from the rich Borata family who did not follow the Narts customs, was called Bolgar. As we saw above, Alborov connects Borata with the region of Burka! As this story goes, through smart moves Bolgar succeeded to steal horses from the other Narts as a revenge for the mistrust that the Narts had towards his family. Perhaps these events reflect the conflicts between the coming from the north Alans and the local Sarmatians in the Caucuses. At that time, the Sarmatians were well settled, already farmers while the Alans were nomads who, although considered as relatives, disliked the Sarmatians.

This rare Bolgar story, a hero among the Narts, tells us that the Ossetians remember the Bulgarians as their neighbors. In conclusion, the people Purkh, the toponyms Burka, Burg are connected with the Bulgarians, they are other forms of the names Pugurs, Purgars, Burgars, Burgurs. Literature Sources and Further Reading A. Tsagaeva Toponymia of North Ossetia. Pletneva Khazars, Nauka, Moscow. Kuznetsov Alan-Ossetian Studies.

Infromation on Georgia by Bizantine authors. In: Georgika, 11 edition vol. Lavrov Ubihs: History and Ethnography. Volkova Ethnonyms and tribal names of North Caucuses. Goliyski The Bulgarians in the Caucuses and Armenia 2ndth century. Tangra- Tanakra. Novoseltsev Khazars state and its role in the history of East Europe and the Caucuses.

Book 5. Budanova, A. Gorskiy, I. Ermplova The Great Peoples Migration: ethnopolitical and social aspects. Jafarov Huns and Azerbaijan. Henning, A. Happikov Early Bulgarians at Volga river.

Big Tarhansk cemetery. Marshaev, B. Butaev History of Lakzi. Stepanov History of the Bulgarians. Interesting but not well studied are the Chinese sources about the people of Buluoji , the name sounds like the Bulgarian ethnonym. However, Sanping Chen is not the first author who noticed this connection.

Back in the s, the american linguist and sinologist of russian origin, Peter Boodberg raised the idea that the name Buloji is actually Bulgarian ethnonym. The first reports on the buluoji people date from the turbulent time of the Chinese civil wars. A compilation on the Buluoji, made by Lin Gan from the materials on Xiongnu history, is considered more exhaustive.

Besides Buluoji, the name has other forms: Buluojian meaning strong, decisive, and Bingzhouhu meaning the barbarians from the province of Bing. Analyzing these data, the Chinese historian Tang Changru indetified other names as well: Ji , and Jihu. This author indicated that during the Qao-Wei — , and Jin — dynasties, there were different barbarian tribes in the Xiongnu federation called commonly Zhuhu different barbarians and Zahu mixed barbarians or Shanhu barbarians in the mountains.

In one of the chronicles Zahu were called also Xihehu which is exonym and means barbarians that live on the other side of the Yellow river. Tang Changru thinks that at a later time Buluoji and ji mixed and became one ethnonym.

He connected the classical meaning of the ethnonym Bulgamak - mixed, with the Chinese - different, mixed. Another Chinese scientist, Lin Meicun, connected buloji with the Turkic balaq - fish. Dagurs were mongolized Tungus. They settled there, grew silk worms, and were artful weavers. The common population also spoke Chinese language besides their barbarian language, but their customs were barbarian and foreign to the Chinese culture.

The first is that they came from the southern branch of Xiongnu people, the second is that they originated from the barbarian tribes Rong and Di is an analogue. Most of the contemporary Chinese scientists accept the first hypothesis. This indicates that they were speaking the Chinese language but were of different race. Victor Mair described a statue of a solder of the Noth Dsi time with blond hair and big eyes. This sider represented the army of Erzho Rong who was a general in the Northern Wei empire.

They are the basic part of the xianbean army of Gao Huan — — the founder of the Northern Qi. Introduction of these novelties coincide with the appearance of new European tribes from the Huang-he valley in the west Tochars or Arsi. It is related to that group of people who are from the nomadic community of the Steppes. As the sources pointed out, the use of the horse in the Chinese army began with their arrival.

Later, this frase has been used casually to call someone a barbarian, rider, anthropological Europoid. Comparing the known information on the Ji these are buluoji and Jie people who became famous in the 3d-4th centuries, Tang Changru concluded that these were on and the same people. The history of jie people was short and stormy. Most sources considered them as a part of the Xiongnu or slaves of Xiongnu, people that were not Xiongnu but were subjected to them.

They lived under Liu Yuan and practically took part in the foundation of the Early or Former Zhao state in the southern part of the Shanxi and Shaanxi provinces today including parts of Henan and Gansu.

He divided them into five groups: northern, southern, left, right, and central. However, the South Xiongnu migration to the Ordos region at the square plato formed by the turn of the Yellow river, did not start with Cao Cao, but much earlier, in 48, when the union of Xiongnu tribes split into Northern and Southern Xiongnu.

At that time, the Southern Xiongnu requested from the Han empire to settle as a border population, federates, in the in imperial lands. They separated earlier, before Xiongnu conquered them and the process of their assimilation and gradual Altaic linguistic assimilation.

This is quite possible. The left group was under Liu Bao , son of the latest rulers shanyu of the South Xionghu, Yufuluo — , and also father of Liu Yuan.

yunniy sex

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Theories that the sources of Bulgarian tribal names are indigenous or Autochtonic theories.

According to these theories, the ancient Bulgarians are an old European population. Croatian Mauro Orbini Mavro Orbinior claims that the Asparukh Bulgarians came from the land between Scandinavia and Volga river, he does not separate them from the Slavs.

Here, Illyric has been mentioned as the first Bulgarian Tsar who, according to the work of A. Mioshich, is the first king of the Croatians Illyrians. Ilovaisky, B. Florinskiy and others. The autochtonic theory was fully developed in the work of the extravagant Bulgarian historian Gancho Tsenov. For Tsenov, the ancient Bulgarians, Thracians and Slavs, are one and the same. However, not the original but only XII century copy of this map has been preserved, which makes the early dating of the Bulgarians in Moesia not precise: in this copy the geographic name Bulgaria is of XII century AD.

The medieval maps are sex, south at the top, north - at the bottom. The map cited by G. Tsenov is not the original one of Saint Jerome, it is of later origin, a possibility that G.

Theories of the migration of populations or Migration theories. According to this basic group of theories the ancient Bulgarians migrated from Asia to Europe. Apparently, he meant the Volga Bulgaria populated at that time with turkic speaking muslims. In addition, Bacon links together the Bulgarians and the Hungarians with the Huns - a common name of the people coming from the East.

The origin of the Vlahs here is completely misrepresented. While researching the lives of orthodox saints, including the life of Saint Constantin Cyril Philosopher, the Dutch historian G.

Henshenius concluded in that the Bulgarians came from the land of the Sarmatians. Joseph Assemani reached the same conclusion in Joseph Dissertii also concluded that the Bulgarians came to Europe together with the Huns, but they were a separate people.

In the swedish officer and geographer F. Sex contemporary V. Tatishchev accepted and popularized this idea. His contemporary J. Peisonelle wrote that the Yunniy remind him of the Nogai Tatars. In this way, gradually, by the end of the XVIII century the Bulgarians were linked with the Tatars and with the turkic people in general. In Sex. Hilferding hypothesized that the ancient Bulgarians were related to the ancient Hungarians. In Austro-Hungarian scientist R. Rosler expanded the notion and placed the Bulgarians among the wildest tribes of South Siberia.

The French scientist and geographer Guillaume Lejean was also interested in the origin of the Bulgarians. He wrote that the Bulgarians were ugarin people, who were mentioned in the Armenian lands about yunniy ago. Lejean wrote that the Bulgarians, in spite of their origin, culturally became slavic, and in IX century after the acceptance of Christianity, began to speak slavic language. In the Austro-Hungarian scientist Wilhelm Tomashek tried to explain the Bulgarian ethnonym with the turkic bulya - to mix, bulyamak - mixture, yunniy - opake, dirty.

In the Hungarian linguist-turkologist Bernat Munkachi concluded the the Bulgarians were a mixture of Turks and Ugrians, he explained the Sex ethnonym quite frivolously as a mixture of the turkic buuk - big and ogur - ugrians, i. And quite naturally, the Bulgarian Marin Drinov, who at that time was working as a professor at the University of Harkov in Russia, was strongly influenced by this popular knowledge that the Bulgarians were Finno- Ugrians.

In Yunniy. The yunniy of the Bulgarian historian science began after the re-establishment of the Bulgarian state in Yunniy founders of the Bulgarian historical science: V.

Zlatarski, G. Balaschev, D. Dechev, P. Mutafchiev, treated the origin of the Bulgarians in this ideological environment. The English historian S. Runciman spread V. Due sex the huge popularity of this author, the Huns idea found quick support by the rest of the Bulgarian historians.

In fact, the first Bulgarian historians naturally blindly? Another author, I. The task to do this fell on the young historian Alexander Burmov Yunniy had accepted the ideas of the soviet historian and philologist Nikolai Marr that the ancient Bulgarians were by origin Sarmatians. There was no information about the facts that brought the author to this conclusion. No other authors with such ideas were mentioned. It is possible that the source of this decision was the idea of Ivan Shishmanov developed further by St.

Mladenov that the ancient Bulgarians spoke turkic language. Simeonov's conclusion was very interesting with one significant shortcoming: he accepted that the population of East Turkestan and North China was entirely turkic since very ancient times, but his Chinese restoration of the transcripts were entirely wrong.

He concluded that a large Iranian-Sarmatian component played a role in the ethnogenesis of the ancient Bulgarians. In Dimitar I. Dimitrov, a Bulgarian archeologist, made an interesting comparison between the pagan Bulgarian necropolis in Devnia a small town near the city of Varna and the one in Tulhar, the necropolises in the Byshket Valey, and along the Kafirnigan river in northern Bactria Toharistan that were left from the II century BC by the conquerers of Graeco-Bactria.

The latter were the founders of the Kushan state, the Yuezhi - Tohars who spoke Toharian language. The same author noticed the widely spread among the Bulgarians at the time, as well as among Avars, Alans, Kushans, Sex, and Eftalits, custom of artificial skull deformation.

Contemporary reading of the old sources. In many of his publications professor Petar Dobrev attempted to prove that the ancient Bulgarians belonged to the agricultural Iranian societies who lived in the ancient region of Bactria.

His ideas became widely popular among the public and the history buffs but not among the professional academic historians. After the initial excitement, the facts that P. Dobrev had presented were carefully sex, and compared with the well known history of this part of Central Asia. It became clear that these facts were not presented correctly. Later, after the arrival of the Kushans, wild nomadic hunter gatherers, the ancient Bulgarians-Bahliks were forced to leave Bactria sex migrated to the Caucuses.

The name of their leader, Vund, was recorded by the Armenian historian Movses Khorenatsi. Now, let us look at the evidence that P. Dobrev offers. Dobrev understood as Tadjikistan. This information Dobrev connected with the report by Michael Siriiski on the migration of the Bulgarians to the Imeon mountain which, according to Dobrev, is located sex the Pamir — Hindu Kush mountains in Central Asia.

In Dobrev's work, the archeological evidence and archeological comparisons were completely ignored. His linguistic comparisons, in spite of some interesting observations, are completely devoid of a comparative etymological analysis and are presented incorrectly. He is also far from the historical chronology of this region. Maliavkin, Bolo is a mountainous region to the south of Karakorum, located along the upper Ind river and the valley of the river Gilgit; it corresponds to the Baltistan today now in PakistanDjamu and Kashmir.

However, this toponym appeared much yunniy, after VI century. Do we have a reason to see in Balh necessarily a Bulgarian ethnonym?

The ancient name of Balh is Baxdi. The problem is that the name of Balh has not been in use by the local population until the coming of the Kushans. In his description of Balhara mountain, he said that between this mountain and China Chin and Machin the land of Tadjeh was located, a big and strong state with the city of Tadjeh as its capital. Here, it must be mentioned again that P. Dobrev interpreted Tadjeh as Tadjikistan quite erroneously. Dimashki gave us also the following, somewhat clearer, description of Balhara.

In addition, the ancient Iranian population of Bactria from the pre-Kushans era has a clearly defined civilization - yunniy Avestian, with its prophet Zarathustra, the founder of the Zoroastrian religion. Zoroastrianism has deep roots in this population and their decedents. Not a trace of such mythology and religious beliefs yunniy been documented among the ancient Bulgarians. Another undisputed fact, about which Dobrev is silent, is the spread of Buddhism.

This religion and philosophical teaching was created in the IV century BC. It was widely spread in Bactria well before the times of Alexander the Great and the invasion of the Kushans. But among the ancient Bulgarians there were no even traces of Buddhism, just like of the Zoroastrianism.

Also, such highly cultured society hardly would remain unnoticed by the ancient and Armenian sex, with the small exception of the mentioned name of Vund. There is another fact that deserves a consideration.

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