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Experimental Use Dogpile Dogpile was built to give users the best search results available on the Sexlust eXTReMe Tracker get every advanced feature required to picture the visitors of your website Yahoo Sertralin VG Serotonin syndrom nhi. Hva er serotonin syndrom?
Men for mye serotonin skaper problemer. Anm : Antidepressiva nytteverdi mintankesmie. Dopamine deficiency: What you need to know medicalnewstoday. Can we sexlust procrastination on our genes? Resultatene ble publisert i dag i tidsskriftet Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. For ca. Anm : Kandidatgen. Kandidatgener er blevet brugt til at identificere genetiske risikofaktorer for at finde komplekse lidelser som f. Anm : Et nytt kart over hjernens serotoninsystem. This study allows us to see different parts of the elephant at the same time.
Crit Care Clin ; In its most severe presentation, SS rapidly progresses to cardiac arrest, coma seizures, or multiple organ failure with disseminated intravascular coagulation. Nonetheless, SS can clearly become life-theatening and in some cases deaths have occurred despite early and aggressive intensive care.
SS sertralin en iatrogen legemiddelrelatert lidelse som ikke har noe kjent endogent sertralin. Det eksisterer kun som et direkte resultat av psykofarmakologisk legemiddelterapi.
SS is an iatrogenic drug-related disorder that has no known sertralin counterpart. It exists only as a direct result of psychopharmacologic drug therapy. The earliest published account of SS is attributed to a sexlust report discussing toxic encephalitis.
The The only absolutely consistent finding among cases of SS is sexlust history of patient exposure to a drug or combination of drugs that increase CNS serotonin activity. SS does not have a gender predilection and has been reported in patients ranging in age from 9 55 to 82 years old. Patients are no more likely to develop SS following an overdose than they are while taking therapeutic doses. Therefore, therapeutic drug levels do not exclude the diagnosis. SS can theoretically be produced by any drug or combination of drugs that has the net effect of increasing serotonergic neurotransmission Fig.
Animal models of SS suggest that it primarily occurs via stimulation of postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors in the brain stem. In addition, stimulation of postsynaptic 5-HT2 receptors, although less important than 5-HT1A reseptors, is probably also involved in explaining the full SS37, Tabell 1.
Rhabdomyolosis kan resultere i forlenget eller alvorlig muskelstivhet. Rhabdomyolosis can result from either prolonged or severe muscle rigidity. Less commonly reported neuromuscular abnormalities include teeth chattering, paresthesias, and head twitching. De er vanligvis av kort varighet, men langvarige kramper er blitt rapportert36,58,79, Changes in behavior, such as anxiety and hypomania, may be initially misinterpreted as an exacerbation of underlaying psychiatric illness.
They are usually short-lived, but refractory convultions have been reported36,58,79, Subjective symptoms, such as headache, insomnia, hallucinations visualand dizziness, are less commonly, elicited.
Diaphoresis is one of the hallmarks of SS and is reported in approximately half of all cases found in literature. Dilated pupils have been seen in over a quarter of reported cases and have been unreactive to light.
Flushed skin, diarrhea, salivation, and abdominal pain occure relatively infrequently. SS is associated with sexlust potentially severe complications, such as hyperthermia, seizures, coma, disseminated intravascular coagulation, hypotension, ventricular tachycardia, and metabolic acidosis. Metabolic acidosis is sertralin seen only in cases involving hyperthermia, seizures, muscle rigidity, or multiple organ failure. Kilde : Store norske leksikon. Anm : Multiorgansviktsvikt eller delvis svikt i funksjonen av mer enn to organer.
J Am Soc Nephrol. Anm : Mitochondria: a new therapeutic target in chronic kidney disease. Nutr Metab Lond. Anm : Chronic kidney disease may cause diabetes. When kidneys fail, urea that builds up in the blood can cause sexlust, concludes a study published today in the Journal of Clinical Investigation.
Anm : Identification of an immune-responsive mesolimbocortical serotonergic system: Potential role in regulation of emotional behavior. Fluoxetine and the mitochondria: A review of the toxicological aspects.
Fluoksetin sexlust mitokondriene: En gjennomgang av de toksikologiske aspekter. Toxicol Lett. The effects of psychostimulant drugs on blood brain barrier function and neuroinflammation Front.
Anm : [Serotonin antibodies in fibromyalgia syndrome--expression of a neuroendocrinologic autoimmune disease? Z Rheumatol. Increased serotonergic innervation might contribute to clinical differences in LRRK2 Parkinson's disease, including the emergence of non-motor symptoms and, potentially, differences in the long-term response to levodopa.
Lancet Neurol. Anm : What to know about inflammatory rheumatism. Autoimmune diseases occur when the immune system attacks healthy cells and tissues in sexlust body. Other rheumatic disorders, such as gout, occur as a result of excess uric acid. Some people use the sertralin "inflammatory rheumatism" to refer to rheumatic disorders that involve inflammation.
Rheumatism is a word that doctors historically used for conditions that affect the joints. Doctors no longer use the term. Instead — as there are so many types of rheumatic disorders with different causes — they stress that people should get a specific diagnosis so that a doctor can prescribe the correct treatment.
Inflammatory rheumatic disorders include: - rheumatoid arthritis RA - psoriatic arthritis PsA - ankylosing spondylitis - systemic lupus erythematosus SLEor lupus - rheumatic fever sertralin gout This article looks at the various types of inflammatory rheumatism, how doctors diagnose them, and their treatments. Anm : Kroniske inflammatoriske leddsykdommer. Behandlingsprogram, Revmatologisk poliklinikk.
Indtil nu. Thousands of Small, Novel Genes. Anm : Bakteriers indre struktur. Anm : 1 extra kilo of deep belly fat can increase diabetes risk in women. Researchers already know that excess body fat can increase the risk of diabetes, but a new study shows that one form of fat, in particular — the "invisible" one that accumulates around organs and intestines — can heighten this risk more than seven times, at least in women.
How do antidepressants affect gut bacteria? Anm : Imbalance between gut microorganisms, immune cells could set stage for autoimmune disease. Anm : Differentiating Between Sertralin Species.
Differentiating bacterial strains within a single sample can sertralin a daunting challenge. Microscopic studies of the sample can be used for simple identification and differentiation tasks.
Microbiologists can identify the microbe by its morphological features and document all of the organisms in the sample. Staining, culturing, and simple biochemical tests are other traditional methods for distinguishing between microbial species. Anm : Human gut microbe may help treat autoimmune diseases, say researchers.
Mayo Clinic researchers, along with colleagues at the University of Iowa, report that a human gut microbe discovered at Mayo Clinic may help treat autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis.
Serotonin syndrome American Family Physician ; Serotoninsyndrom er en potensielt livstruende komplikasjon grunnet psykofarmakologisk legemiddelterapi. Serotonin syndrome is a potentially lifethreatening complication of psychopharmacological drug therapy. The syndrome is produced most often by the concurrent use of two or more drugs that increase brainstem serotonin activity and is often unrecognised because of the varied and non-specific naure of its sympthomatlogy.
Serotonin syndrome is characterized by alteration in cognition, bahavior, autonomic nervous system function and neuromuscular activity. Serotonin syndrome is an iatrogenic disorder: it only occurs in setting of drug therapy that has a net effect of augmenting brain serotonin neurotransmission.
Serotonin syndrome most commonly occurs when two or more serotonergic are given concurrently.
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Anm : Collaborative meta-analysis finds no evidence of a strong interaction between stress and 5-HTTLPR genotype contributing to the development of depression. Anticholinergic effects of common drugs are associated with increased mortality in over 65s.
The combined anticholinergic effects of many common drugs increase the risk of cognitive impairment and death in people aged over 65, a large scale study of the long term effect of drugs on health has found. BMJ ; d 28 June. Anm : Serotonergic dysfunction documented in hoarding disorder.
Anm : Men experience greater cognitive impairment and increased risk of death following hip surgery. In a study of hip fracture patients, men displayed greater levels of cognitive impairment within the first 22 days of fracture than women, and cognitive limitations increased the risk of dying within six months in both men and women. Anm : Det autonome nervesystemet. Cytotoxicity of different selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRIs against cancer cells.
J Exp Ther Oncol. Anm : Could antidepressants stop prostate cancer from spreading? In almost all cases where prostate cancer spreads to other areas of the body, the disease spreads to the bone first. In a new study, researchers reveal the discovery of an enzyme that helps prostate cancer cells to invade bone. Furthermore, certain antidepressant medications may have the potential to block this enzyme.
Anm : Classic cytotoxic drugs: a narrow path for regulatory approval. Several classic cytotoxic drugs have shown encouraging activity in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. For example eribulin was approved for treatment of metastatic breast cancer in several countries including Japan, USA, and Europe, based on data that showed longer overall survival in patients treated with eribulin compared with patients treated with physician's choice of treatment. In contrast ixabcpilone with capecitabine gained approval from the US Food and Drug Agency based on data showing longer progression-free survival compared with capccitabine alone, but did not obtain rcgulatory authorisation in Europc because it is associated with a high incidence of nevropathy.
Controversies on the role of 5-HT 2C receptors in the mechanisms of action of antidepressant drugs. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. Evidence from the various sources indicates alterations in 5-HT2C receptor functions in anxiety, depression and suicide, and other stress-related disorders treated with antidepressant drugs.
Our objective herein is to provide a comprehensive overview of the studies that have assessed the effects of antidepressant drugs on 5-HT2C receptors. Relevant molecular second messengers, editing , neurochemical receptor binding and mRNA levels , physiological 5-HT2C receptor-induced hyperthermia and hormone release , behavioral 5-HT2C receptor-induced changes in feeding, anxiety, defense and motor activity data are summarized and discussed. Setting the record straight about drug-induced changes in 5-HT2C receptor function in specific brain regions should help to determine which pharmacotherapeutic strategy is best for affective and anxiety disorders.
Anm : Cafeteria diet and probiotic therapy: cross talk among memory, neuroplasticity, serotonin receptors and gut microbiota in the rat. The western diet is known to have detrimental effects on cognition and the gut microbiota, but few studies have investigated how these may be related. These results show that probiotics can be beneficial in situations of gut dysbiosis where memory deficits are evident but may be detrimental in healthy subjects.
Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 14 March ; doi Mol Psychiatry. Anm : Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression in a mouse via the vagus nerve. There is increasing, but largely indirect, evidence pointing to an effect of commensal gut microbiota on the central nervous system CNS.
However, it is unknown whether lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus could have a direct effect on neurotransmitter receptors in the CNS in normal, healthy animals. GABA is the main CNS inhibitory neurotransmitter and is significantly involved in regulating many physiological and psychological processes. Anm : Forskere finder potentiel epilepsi-behandling. Epilepsi Temporallapsepilepsi TLE er en af de mest almindelige epilepsiformer.
Anm : Serotonin som potentiel epilepsi-behandling. Anm : Calcium supplement use linked to cancer. The report, published Ann Intern Med. On the contrary, they found that excess calcium consumption was associated with increased risk for cancer-related deaths. Calcium supplements were specifically implicated in the excess of mortality, according to the investigators, with a rate ratio of 1.
Serotonin 5-HT is a potent vasoconstrictor agonist and contributes to several vascular diseases including systemic or pulmonary hypertension and atherosclerosis. Although superoxide anion [Formula: see text] is commonly associated to cellular damages due to [Formula: see text] overproduction, we previously demonstrated that, in physiological conditions, [Formula: see text] also participates to the 5-HT contraction in intrapulmonary arteries IPA.
Front Physiol. Int J Mol Sci. Anm : Minislag ministroke: transient ischemic attack TIA linket til lavere forventet levetid. Anm : Stroke: Before, During, and After. Stumme hjerteinfarkt gir ikke de klassiske brystsmertene som ved vanlige infarkt.
Probable fluoxetine-induced carotidynia. The Lancet ; 26 September. Forskerne er i vildrede: Ingen behandling er effektiv. Medisiner og rusmidler. Den gunstige effekten i starten kan ha sin pris ved at mer serotonin gir kvalme hos noen og, spesielt hos eldre, kan gi forvirring. Anm : Antidepressiva linket til hjerterisiko: tvillingstudie.
Reuters - Middle-age men who use antidepressants are more likely to have a narrowing of blood vessels, increasing the risk of heart attacks and strokes, than those who do not use the medications, according to a study presented on Saturday. Anm : A Brean. Anm : Manipulating novel target could lead to new treatments. Northwestern Medicine scientists have shown how manipulating a novel target in the brain using gene therapy could lead to new treatments for depression.
The investigators showed decreasing a set of proteins called HCN channels reduced depression-like behavior in mice. If replicated in humans, the findings could inform fresh therapies for millions of patients who do not respond to existing treatments for depression. The study will be published July 12 in the journal Molecular Psychiatry.
Most existing antidepressants affect mood and emotions by increasing levels of neurotransmitters called monoamines, namely serotonin , dopamine and norepinephrine. But the fact that these drugs are not effective for many patients suggests there are additional mechanisms underlying depression yet to be uncovered that could be targeted with new therapies. Anm : Serum serotonin levels and bone in rheumatoid arthritis patients.
Our data reinforce a role, despite weak, for circulating serotonin in regulating bone mass in RA patients, with some differences in terms of gender and anatomical sites. Rheumatol Int. Although 5-HT is predominantly known as a neurotransmitter within the central nervous system , new evidence points to additional important functions for serotonin in the periphery. They compared the effects of CIA in normal mice to those in mice genetically bred with a deficiency in tryptophan hydroxylase-1, a key enzyme needed for serotonin production in peripheral tissues.
The investigators found that both the number and activity of osteoclasts were higher in 5-HT-deficient mice with arthritis. In addition, more bone resorption was detected both at the affected joints and at remote sites. These novel data suggest a new therapeutic target that could be important for this disabling disease. Anm : Serotonin 5-HT : receptors, agonists and antagonists. Anm : Hjernen mintankesmie. Anm : Mitochondria mitokondrie mitokondriesykdommer mitokondrielle sykdommer.
Anm : Legemiddelinduserte mitokondrielle skader og sykdom. Medication-induced mitochondrial damage and disease.
Mol Nutr Food Res. Anm : Antidepressant target discovery could lead to gene therapy treatment. In , researchers at Weill Cornell Medical College thought they hit on a novel way to treat depression--by delivering a gene called p11 directly to the brain. Pasienten brukte flere legemidler fast, deriblant antipsykotika og antidepressiva. Det var ingen serotonerge reaksjoner hos de pasienten som ikke tok et serotonergt legemiddel 4. Infektioner med bakterien Clostridium difficile ses oftere hos personer i behandling for depression.
Anm : Legemidler bl. Anm : Rebiotix microbiome drug success against C diff infection. Patients suffering from a recurrent infection with the C difficile bacteria have benefited from a microbiome treatment from Rebiotix. Anm : Antibiotika tarmbakterier, probiotika, mikrobiota etc. Dysbiose; dysbiosis also called dysbacteriosis dysbakteriose. Anm : Signaler fra tarmens mikrobiotika til fjerntliggende organer mht.
Signals from the gut microbiota to distant organs in physiology and disease. Nat Med. Anm : Antibiotika kan gi flere kroniske sykdommer. Anm : Researchers explore link between gut microbiome and nutrition in autism spectrum disorder. Anm : Researchers discover new mechanism that causes chronic intestinal inflammation. They describe in Nature Communications exactly how it throws the immune system off-balance.
Chronic intestinal disorders such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are caused by the body's own immune defense system. Anm : Forsiktighet kreves ved samtidig forskrivning av antibiotika med psykofarmaka hos eldre pasienter. Studien publiceras i den vetenskapliga tidskriften Gut. Anm : Ny forskning viser hvor raskt bakterien blir motstandsdyktig mot antibiotika.
Forskere ved Harvard-universitetet har registrert hvor raskt E. Anm : E. Denne betennelsen var avhengig av CD1d-proteiner. Regnbogehinna er eit dynamisk organ som vert regulert av aktiviteten i det autonome nervesystemet, noko ein lenge har utnytta innan medisinen. Innhaldet av nevrotransmitteren acetylkolin i hjernen er redusert hos pasientar med Alzheimers sjukdom. Anm : Hva er det forskrivere og pasienter ikke vet om bivirkninger av antidepressiva?
What do prescribers and patients not know about the side effects of antidepressant drugs? En liste over de serotonerge psykiatriske legemidler som kan interagere med linezolid kan bli funnet i Drug Safety Communication sikkerhetskommunikasjon av legemiddelsikkerhet. ISSUE : FDA has received reports of serious central nervous system CNS reactions when the antibacterial drug linezolid Zyvox is given to patients taking psychiatric medications that work through the serotonin system of the brain serotonergic psychiatric medications.
A list of the serotonergic psychiatric medications that can interact with linezolid can be found in the Drug Safety Communication. Safety information about this potential drug interaction and important drug usage recommendations for emergency and non-emergency situations are being added to the drug labels for serotonergic psychiatric medications and linezolid.
It is a reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor MAOI. Although the exact mechanism of this drug interaction is unknown, linezolid inhibits the action of monoamine oxidase A — an enzyme responsible for breaking down serotonin in the brain. It is believed that when linezolid is given to patients taking serotonergic psychiatric medications, high levels of serotonin can build up in the brain, causing toxicity.
A separate Drug Safety Communication DSC is being released today for methylene blue due to similar potential drug interactions with serotonergic psychiatric medications and includes drug usage recommendations. Fremstilles ut fra p-dimetylaminoanilin, dimetylanilin og tiosulfat ved oksidasjon. Danner dobbeltsalter med mange uorganiske salter. Anm : FDA Drug Safety Communication: Updated information about the drug interaction between methylene blue methylthioninium chloride and serotonergic psychiatric medications.
Generics are also available in India, such as Linospan Cipla. J Neuroradiol. Anm : Vitenskapens psykedelika-pushere. Linezolid hemmer mitokondrienes proteinsyntese. Seponering av ett eller begge legemidlene skal vurderes ved tegn eller symptomer. The first months of paroxetine withdrawal, including tapering and 1 month of complete discontinuation, were characterized by persistent postwithdrawal disorders consisting of continuous agitation, depersonalization, generalized anxiety, physical weakness, mood swings and sleep difficulties.
Psychother Psychosom ; EN cessation of medication; withdrawal. ET [lat. Anm : Mitokondriell dysfunksjon mitokondriedysfunksjon indusert av sertraline Zoloft , et antidepressiva Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by sertraline, an antidepressant agent Toxicol Sci. Epub Mar 2. Could lupus raise dementia risk? People living with lupus may be at significantly greater risk of developing dementia than those without the autoimmune disease, a new study suggests.
Effects of tramadol, clonazepam, and their combination on brain mitochondrial complexes. The results showed that groups that received tramadol therapeutic and abuse suffered from weight loss. Toxicol Ind Health. Med Sci Monit. Lactate is a byproduct of the chemical process known as glycolysis - the breaking down of sugar, or glucose, into smaller molecules with the purpose of producing energy.
During intense physical activity, lactate accumulates in the tissue and blood, which can sometimes lead to poorer physical performance and muscle stiffness. European Medical Journal Februar 20, Anm : Diagnosing Carcinoid Tumors. The early stages of carcinoid syndrome are difficult to diagnose for various reasons.
Most symptoms are quite common and wide-ranging. For example, flushing can be a symptom of carcinoid syndrome but it may also be indicative of menopause, an alcoholic reaction, or an aftereffect of the drug, which can make differential diagnosis difficult. Measuring the level of serotonin in the blood can be very useful. Normal serotonin levels in the blood with high serotonin and 5-HTP levels in urine are found in patients with these types of tumors.
The doctor may prescribe other blood tests depending on the symptoms and the tumor-affected area. Anm : Know the symptoms of carcinoid syndrome. You can start by knowing what to look for and learning how to treat these symptoms.
Anm : Foods to Avoid for Carcinoid Syndrome. Some of the symptoms of carcinoids can be better managed by food and nutritional diet. The effect of food varies across individuals and, therefore, understanding the cause of the symptoms is the first step of a nutritional intervention. There are some types of food, however, that need to be avoided by carcinoid patients as they may trigger symptoms and have an impact on the quality of living.
Further studies are needed to replicate these findings and to substantiate the hypothesis that metformin gastrointestinal side effects could be related to the reduced intestinal serotonin uptake. Anm : PTSD kan forebygges med tarmbakterier, antyder studie. PTSD could be prevented with gut microbes, study suggests. PTSD may be physical and not only psychological. The part of the brain that helps control emotion may be larger in people who develop post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD after brain injury compared to those with a brain injury without PTSD, according to a study that will be presented at the American Academy of Neurology's Sports Concussion Conference in Jacksonville, Fla.
Novel approach could soon play key role in helping veterans overcome PTSD. A novel approach of using visual and physical stimulus to help military veterans address their traumatic experiences could soon play a significant role in helping British veterans overcome post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD , thanks to a new Cardiff University research project.
Post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD is a condition that can arise in individuals who have experienced shocking, dangerous, or frightening events. Anm : Hormone and neurotransmitter systems disturbed in alcoholics' brains medicalnewstoday.
Slik kommuniserer hjernen forskning. Synapsen er kontaktpunktet mellom to nerveceller. Les mer: Nervecellenes stemme. Anm : Psykiatriske patienter ender i private botilbud. Aggression disorder linked to greater risk of substance abuse. They found that as the severity of aggressive behavior increased, so did levels of daily and weekly substance use. The findings suggest that a history of frequent, aggressive behavior is a risk factor for later substance abuse, and effective treatment of aggression could delay or even prevent substance abuse in young people.
Anm : Systemic inflammatory response syndrome SIRS is an inflammatory state affecting the whole body, frequently a response of the immune system to infection. Anm : Sepsis. Anm : Septikemi, det samme som blodforgiftning. Anm : Sepsis test could show results 'in minutes'.
A new rapid test for earlier diagnosis of sepsis is being developed by University of Strathclyde researchers. The device, which has been tested in a laboratory, may be capable of producing results in two-and-a-half minutes, the Biosensors and Bioelectronics journal study suggests.
Diagnosing sepsis can be a complex process. Anm : Rollen til mitokondriell dysfunksjon mitokondriedysfunksjon ved sepsis blodforgiftning -indusert multiorgansvikt. The role of mitochondrial dysfunction in sepsis-induced multi-organ failure.
Anm : Diagnosing Sepsis. Around one-third of patients who are affected with sepsis die every year. The public and political space is the space in which [sepsis] needs to be in order for things to change. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen ; Anm : Sepsis ; grunnleggende kliniske observasjoner. Anm : Alle bryt lova i behandling av blodforgifting. Helsetilsynet fann brot ved 24 akuttmottak over heile landet. Anm : Bivirkninger underrapporteres i videnskabelige tidsskrifter.
Anm : Eksplosjon av antidepressiva til unge jenter. Unge jenter har aldri brukt mer antidepressiver. Anm : Flere barn og unge akuttinnlegges for psykisk sykdom.
Anm : Eksplosjon av antidepressiva til unge jenter: Lykkepillegenerasjonen. Anm : LO advarer mot trygdebombe. LO mener dette er en potensiell trygdebombe. Anm : Har vi blitt psykisk sykere? Folkehelseinstituttet fhi.
Minst elever var borte fra skolen i fjor fordi de hadde ME. Anm : Psykiatriske skadestuer kan ikke klare presset. Antidepressants linked to tooth implant failure, new study finds.
Anm : Heart disease risk higher with latent tooth infection. If you missed your last dental checkup, a new study might encourage you to book that appointment right away; researchers have identified a higher risk of heart disease for individuals who have hidden tooth infections.
Now, researchers from the University of Helsinki in Finland have uncovered a link between dental root tip infection, known as apical periodontitis , and greater risk for acute coronary syndrome ACS - an umbrella term for conditions that involve blocked blood flow to the coronary arteries. Mitochondria are evolutionary endosymbionts derived from bacteria. It is argued that mitochondrial dysfunctions, e. Metab Brain Dis. Link found between autoimmune diseases, medications, and a dangerous heartbeat condition.
Anm : Linking telomere loss and mitochondrial dysfunction in chronic disease. Front Biosci Landmark Ed. New research from the University of Maryland and the NIH has shown that telomerase is reactivated in adult somatic cells at the latter stage of cell aging, which acts as a buffer to reduce the potential for DNA damage that could lead cells to become cancerous. Scientists can now say that regulated activation of telomerase at a critical point in a cell's life cycle serves an important function.
Anm : Extreme short and long telomeres linked to increased cancer risk news-medical. Anm : Scientists discover master regulator of cellular aging. Once the telomere is too short, the cell cannot divide anymore. Anm : Betennelser endrer mitokondrier til giftige fabrikker.
Inflammation turns mitochondria into toxic factories. Learning how to control inflammation could have huge implications for the treatment of many diseases. Breaking research discovers how macrophages turn mitochondria into toxic chemical-producing inflammation-promoters. Anm : Research may show new ways to repress inflammation at outset. Anm : Mitochondria affect stress responses. CHOP scientist: Cell's powerhouse plays role in mind-body interactions, with long-term health effects.
Mitochondria, the tiny structures inside our cells that generate energy, may also play a previously unrecognized role in mind-body interactions. Based on new studies of stress responses, this insight may have broad implications for human psychology and for the biology of psychiatric and neurological diseases. A pioneering scientist in mitochondrial medicine has led research in animals showing how alterations in mitochondrial function lead to distinct physiological changes in hormonal, metabolic and behavioral systems in response to mild stress.
Curr Neurovasc Res. Anm : Dexmedetomidine to treat lisdexamfetamine overdose and serotonin toxidrome in a 6-year-old girl. A 6-year-old girl displayed symptoms of serotonin syndrome after accidental ingestion of Vyvanse lisdexamfetamine dimesylate. Dexmedetomidine was administered because of persistent neuromuscular hyperactivity and severe agitation despite initial therapy with benzodiazepines.
Some children show a paradoxical reaction to benzodiazepines, and dexmedetomidine has a possible role in the treatment of serotonin syndrome.. Am J Crit Care. Anm : Dexmedetomidine , sold under the trade names Precedex and Dexdor, among others, is an anxiolytic , sedative , and analgesic medication.
Interaktioner og Interaktionsdatabasen URL irf. Dette skyldes, at de opfattes som fremmede af organismen. Anm : Serotonergic medication enhances the association between suicide and sunshine. J Affect Disord. This may have interesting theoretical and clinical implications. This effect may be mediated through less serotonin neuron firing and release, which affects mood and suicidal ideation and thereby decision making.
JAMA Psychiatry. Anm : Fatigue after depression responds to therapy. What are the next steps? A sufficient base of evidence is often lacking to guide pharmacotherapy for fatigue Current Psychiatry June;14 6 , J Clin Psychiatry ;76 6 :e—e Anm : Antipsykotika psykofarmaka etc. Trass i alle milliarder av kroner som var blitt investert, trass i alle gode intensjoner. Anm : Psykofarmaka dreper mange. Dette er helt utrolig.
Anm : Antipsykotika og fysisk attraktivitet Antipsychotics and physical attractiveness Clin Schizophr Relat Psychoses. Anm : Association of anticholinergic burden with adverse effects in older people with intellectual disabilities: an observational cross-sectional study.
Conclusions Older people with intellectual disabilities and with mental health conditions were exposed to high anticholinergic burden. This was associated with daytime dozing and constipation. The British Journal of Psychiatry Dec , 6 Am Fam Physician. Department of Justice into its marketing of Risperdal and several other drugs. Anm : Derfor bliver man fed af antipsykotisk medicin. Anm : Signaling from dysfunctional mitochondria induces a distinct type of senescence.
Signalering fra dysfunksjonelle mitokondrier induserer en distinkt type tiltagende alderdom. Finding provides alternative explanation for the free-radical theory of aging and suggests new role for mitochondria in affecting physiology. Anm : Mitochondrial Dysfunction Meets Senescence.
Trends Biochem Sci. Anm : Speilet som ser et fremtidig hjerteinfarkt. See how lighting up can add years to your appearance, causing sagging skin, hair loss, and more.
Do serotonin reuptake inhibitors worsen outcome of patients referred to the emergency department for deliberate multi-drug exposure? Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. Epub Oct 8. Incidence of poisonings with serotonin reuptake inhibitors SRIs is growing. SRI toxicity is considered low, but its actual impact in multi-drug poisonings remains unclear.
Our objective was to evaluate the consequences of SRI exposure in patients referred to the emergency department ED for deliberate multi-drug exposure.
Patients admitted for multi-drug exposure involving at least one SRI were matched with patients who did not ingest any SRI, according to age, gender, type of drug and ingested doses. Features of serotonin syndrome according to Sternbach's criteria and Hunter's serotonin toxicity criteria were evaluated from records. In 4 years, SRI-exposed patients were included and compared to matched controls.
Serotonin syndrome was diagnosed in one patient, but actually occurred in five SRI-exposed patients based on the retrospective evaluation of records.
At least two of 11 of Sternbach's criteria and two of nine of Hunter's serotonin toxicity criteria were missing in each chart. In multi-drug-poisoned patients admitted to the ED, exposure to SRIs significantly increases the risk of seizures and requirement for mechanically ventilation. Diagnosis of serotonin syndrome remains insufficient justifying improved training. Purpose: Depression is a public disorder worldwide. Despite the widespread use of venlafaxine in the treatment of depression, it has been associated with the incidence of toxicities.
Hence, the goal of the current investigation was to evaluate the mechanisms of venlafaxine-induced cell death in the model of the freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Adv Pharm Bull. Anm : Akutt toksisitet for 8 antidepressiva: hva er deres virkningsmekanismer?
Acute toxicity of 8 antidepressants: what are their modes of action? Currently, the hazard posed by pharmaceutical residues is a major concern of ecotoxicology. Most of the antidepressants belong to a family named the Cationic Amphipathic Drugs known to have specific interactions with cell membranes. The present study assessed the impact of eight antidepressants belonging to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors.
Epub Feb Anm : Cytotoxic immune cell in sick and healthy skin a key to understanding vitiligo. With the aid of thousands of skin biopsies and over a hundred kilograms of skin, researchers at Karolinska Institutet have observed how two subgroups of immune cell behave in healthy skin.
This functional dichotomy is preserved in the inflammatory diseases psoriasis and vitiligo. The study, which is published in the journal Immunity , opens the way for more targeted local treatments for patchy inflammatory skin disorders.
Anm : Common antidepressant may change brain. MRI images taken at the end of the treatment phase revealed that in depressed subjects the drug significantly increased the volume of one region of the brain, the anterior cingulate cortex, while decreasing the volume of this same region and the hippocampus in non-depressed subjects. Both of these areas are highly interconnected with other areas of the brain; are critical in a wide array of functions including memory, learning, spatial navigation, will, motivation and emotion; and are implicated in major depressive disorder.
Anm : Antipsychotic drugs linked to brain tissue loss in patients with schizophrenia. Antipsychotic medications are the most common treatment for individuals with schizophrenia, helping to relieve some of the debilitating symptoms caused by the disorder.
But according to a new study, long-term use of these drugs may also negatively impact brain structure. Researchers say long-term use of antipsychotic medications - particularly first-generation antipsychotics - may lead to gray matter loss in the brain. First author Dr. Antonio Vita, professor of psychiatry at the University of Brescia in Italy, and colleagues publish their findings in the journal Biological Psychiatry.
Significance The difference between brain age estimated from MRI and chronological age is thought to serve as an important biomarker reflecting pathological processes in the brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Oct , ;. A long-term imaging study suggests that brain volume in patients with schizophrenia progressively declined with increasing duration of antipsychotic therapy. Conclusions Viewed together with data from animal studies, our study suggests that antipsychotics have a subtle but measurable influence on brain tissue loss over time, suggesting the importance of careful risk-benefit review of dosage and duration of treatment as well as their off-label use.
Arch Gen Psychiatry. Anm : SSRI antidepressants: extrapyramidal reactions. Following drug introduction or dose increase. In half of the cases, the disorder occurred within 7 days after initiating the treatment or increasing the dose 1. Anm : What is akathisia and why does it occur? Akathisia is a side effect of certain drugs that causes an uncontrollable urge to move the legs.
It often begins soon after a person starts on a new medication. It is crucial for people with akathisia to seek medical attention when they begin to show signs of it. Doctors can easily adjust medication to relieve this side effect, while still treating the condition that medication was originally prescribed for. In this article, we look at the signs, causes, and treatment options for this side effect. In this study, we tested the role of central dopamine in human bonding.
We applied a combined functional MRI-PET scanner to simultaneously probe mothers' dopamine responses to their infants and the connectivity between the nucleus accumbens NAcc , the amygdala, and the medial prefrontal cortex mPFC , which form an intrinsic network referred to as the "medial amygdala network" that supports social functioning.
We also measured the mothers' behavioral synchrony with their infants and plasma oxytocin. The results of this study suggest that synchronous maternal behavior is associated with increased dopamine responses to the mother's infant and stronger intrinsic connectivity within the medial amygdala network. Moreover, stronger network connectivity is associated with increased dopamine responses within the network and decreased plasma oxytocin.
Together, these data indicate that dopamine is involved in human bonding. Compared with other mammals, humans have an unusually complex social life. The complexity of human bonding cannot be fully captured in nonhuman animal models, particularly in pathological bonding, such as that in autistic spectrum disorder or postpartum depression.
Thus, investigations of the neurochemistry of social bonding in humans, for which this study provides initial evidence, are warranted. Anm : Rat study reveals long-term effects of adolescent amphetamine abuse on the brain. A study of rats given regular, high doses of amphetamine finds that those exposed to the drug at an age corresponding to human adolescence experience long-term changes in brain function that persist into adulthood.
The study, reported in the journal Neuroscience, found that amphetamine leads to changes in dopamine signaling. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays a role in memory, attention, learning and feelings of pleasure. Anm : Tandsjukdom efter implantat. Studien omfattar 4 personer som fick tandimplantat J Med Assoc Thai.
It is characterized by sudden onset of altered mental status, increased neuromuscular activity, and autonomic instability. CASE REPORT : The authors reported a case of serotonin syndrome associated with combined therapy of monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor A year-old Thai man had been taking escitalopram for depression for three years.
He presented with high-grade fever and confusion two days after taking rasagiline for Parkinson's disease. He also had agitation, hallucination, and behavioral change. Escitalopram and rasagiline were discontinued but his renal function worsened, turning to acute kidney injury. He was diagnosed as serotonin syndrome.
Anm : Rasagiline Azilect , TVP, N-propargyl-1 R -aminoindan  is an irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase-B  used as a monotherapy to treat symptoms in early Parkinson's disease or as an adjunct therapy in more advanced cases. Interestingly, MDMA has shown therapeutic benefits in laboratory settings, and may even be on its way to becoming an FDA-approved drug in the next 5 years.
High amounts of serotonin are released Serotonin , a neurotransmitter involved in mood, social behavior, appetite, sexual desire, and sleep, is released in high amounts after an individual takes MDMA. This is why users often report feeling extremely happy, more social, and an increased sense of empathy towards others.
Therefore, once the drug wears off, people are left with less serotonin than usual, which can lead to feelings of depression, irritability, and tiredness. Anm : Scientists uncover a role for the microbiome in regulating fear responses. New research has shown that the microbiome, the collective trillions of bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract, regulates fear responses and modifies the brain function of adult mice.
The neurobiology of fear is evolutionarily hardwired and tightly regulated by the amygdala. Not unusual except that things didn't turn out quite as she expected.
She went into a four-day toxic psychosis with violent hallucinations, imagining she had killed her children, and in fact attacking herself with a knife.
Anm : LSD disambiguation stands for lysergic acid diethylamide, a hallucinogenic drug. Insight into how the drug gives meaning to meaningless stimuli -- and the roots of psychosis.
It is the prototypical, if not the original, psychedelic drug. Despite its first being synthesized in , we still are not entirely clear on its mechanism of action. But a well-conducted randomized trial, published Thursday in Current Biology , now makes it clear that a surprising amount of the effects of LSD are mediated through the serotonin 2A receptor in the brain. In the meantime, physical exercise, education, social interaction, mindfulness and good quality sleep have all been shown to improve cognitive performance and overall well-being.
Anm : Revealed: How speed, meth, ecstasy and other party drugs age the heart at an alarming rate. Scientists analysed blood flow in more than recreation drug users. Found the heart and its arteries much fail earlier in amphetamine consumers. It's believed amphetamines interfere with stem cell functioning - the cells involved in tissue repair and renewal. Anm : Ecstasy skader hukommelsen. Anm : What is lysergic acid diethylamide LSD? Effects and hazards of LSD medicalnewstoday. CNS Drugs.
Anm : Serious Signs of Eye Problems. What Eye Problems Look Like webmd. Cumberland, M. Rahi, Ph. Neuroimaging findings in a case of fluoxetine overdose Funn ved neuroradiologi i en case med fluoxetine Prozac overdose J Neuroradiol. Anm : Steroidhormoner er steroider som fungerer som hormoner.
Anm : Extrapyramidal reactions following treatment with antidepressants: Results of the AMSP multinational drug surveillance programme. However, there are case reports describing EPS following treatment with antidepressants. It is not fully understood how antidepressants cause EPS, but a serotonergic input to dopaminergic pathways is a probable mechanism of action. Methods: Data from a multicenter drug-surveillance programme AMSP, 'drug safety in psychiatry' which systemically documents severe drug reactions during psychiatric inpatient admissions, were reviewed to assess for EPS associated with antidepressant treatment.
We identified 15 such cases, which were studied to detect similarities and to characterise risk factors. Results: We report on 15 patients with EPS following antidepressant-therapy between and EPS were most frequent with escitalopram-treatment 5 cases. The mean age of onset for EPS was EPS occurred at any dosage and equally often in men and women. Conclusions : Our results highlight the possibility of EPS as an important, although uncommon, adverse effect of antidepressants.
Clinicians should beware of this adverse effect and monitor early warning signs carefully. World J Biol Psychiatry. Anm : Extrapyramidal symptoms are serious side-effects of antipsychotic and other drugs. Abstract Antipsychotic medications commonly produce extrapyramidal symptoms as side effects. The extrapyramidal symptoms include acute dyskinesias and dystonic reactions, tardive dyskinesia, Parkinsonism, akinesia, akathisia, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
Extrapyramidal symptoms are caused by dopamine blockade or depletion in the basal ganglia; this lack of dopamine often mimics idiopathic pathologies of the extrapyramidal system. Less recognized is that extrapyramidal symptoms are also associated with certain non-antipsychotic agents, including some antidepressants, lithium, various anticonvulsants, antiemetics and, rarely, oral-contraceptive agents. Extrapyramidal symptoms caused by these agents are indistinguishable from neuroleptic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms.
Clinicians must be able to recognize these side effects and be able to determine the antipsychotic-induced and non-antipsychotic causes of extrapyramidal symptoms.
Nurse Pract. Internationale forskere med den danske professor, dr. Patients with more severe disease had a greater risk of being colonised. These results provide an indication of the importance of colonisation as a possible trigger in eczema. Anm : Prevalence and odds of Staphylococcus aureus carriage in atopic dermatitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Dermatol. Anm : Stive muskler?
Du kan ha fibromyalgi. Anm : Clinical relevance of antibodies against serotonin and gangliosides in patients with primary fibromyalgia syndrome. Abstract The fibromyalgia syndrome FMS is a non-articular rheumatic disorder associated with disturbances in serotonin metabolism. In order to evaluate whether patients with FMS suffer from an autoimmune disorder, we tested sera from 50 clinically well-defined FMS patients for non-organ-specific and organ-specific antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence test.
Common antibodies against nuclei, mitochondria, and microsomes were not increased in these patients compared to healthy controls. The clinical and diagnostic relevance of these antibodies is supported by the absence of anti-serotonin antibodies in other rheumatic disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, polymyalgia rheumatica, and collagen diseases.
These antibodies may belong to the group of antireceptor antibodies, considering the fact that gangliosides are an important component of the serotonin receptor. It remains to be determined whether these antibodies are of pathogenetic relevance, interfering with serotonin binding and thereby inducing symptoms associated with FMS. Anm : Olanzapin depot Zyprexa kan gi en tilstand forenlig med sentralt antikolinergt syndrom. Anm : Fibromyalgi: Fibromyalgi rammer over Han bekrefter holdningene Slydal beskriver.
Anm : Lettere at diagnosticere fibromyalgi. Anm : Blockage of muscle and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by fluoxetine Pr ozac. Anm : Antidepressants noncompetitively inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptor functioJ Neurochem. Anm : Fluoxetine-induced bradycardia and syncope in two patients.
Anm : Drug-induced myopathies. Baillieres Clin Rheumatol. Anm : Drug-induced myasthenic syndromes. Acta Neurol Scand Suppl. Anm : Could more frequent hot flashes herald brain changes? Anm : Frequent hot flashes may be linked to increased heart disease risk news-medical. Anm : Akinesi , manglende evne til bevegelse, som ikke skyldes fysisk utilstrekkelighet, men som skyldes svikt i de hjernesentrene som starter og dirigerer viljestyrte muskelbevegelser.
Akinesi er ett av de tre hovedsymptomene som kjennetegner parkinsonisme. Anm : Relationships between personality traits, medial temporal lobe atrophy, and white matter lesion in subjects suffering from mild cognitive impairment. Aging Neurosci 29 July Anm : Inflammation decreases the level of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain mitochondria and makes them more susceptible to apoptosis induction. Int Immunopharmacol. Anm : Neuromuscular blocking effect of fluoxetine and its interaction with rocuronium.
Auton Autacoid Pharmacol. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol Copenh ; All the doses of paroxetine reduced the 5-HT levels in the three subjects. The 5-Ht levels did not return to the initials levels during the weeks of drug-free intervals.
Seroxat ; Paxil i USA. The 5-HT levels returned to the basic levels during a three to four weeks drug-free period. In a combination of both clinical studies of over 4, patients and animal model studies, Cleveland Clinic researchers have demonstrated - for the first time - that gut microbes alter platelet function and risk of blood clot-related illnesses like heart attack and stroke.
Anm : Serotonin gives insight into sudden infant death syndrome Researchers from the Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, NH, recently investigated the role of serotonin on breathing responses in sleeping infants.
The findings, published in Experimental Physiology , offer a new avenue of research into sudden infant death syndrome. Leiter and his team discovered that when serotonin was injected into the brainstem, the apnea reduced in duration from around 10 seconds to 2 seconds. This effect was only measured when a specific type of serotonin receptor was activated - the 5HT3 receptor.
These findings dovetail neatly with earlier results. Serotonin is found to be reduced in infants who have died of SIDS, and this new evidence shows that serotonin does indeed reduce apnea events in rat pups. The activator had antidepressant effects and initiated nerve cell growth in the hippocampus in control mice but not in those lacking part of the receptor. Maten som motvirker depresjon kk. Areas of this blood vessel damage, called white matter hyperintensities, are found in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease and appear to raise the risk for the condition, the researchers report.
It is believed that the accumulation of beta amyloid plaques in the brain are a primary factor in the development of the memory-robbing condition. The exact connection between this vessel damage and Alzheimer's disease isn't exactly clear, he added. While the study showed an association between the two, it did not prove a cause-and-effect relationship. These tiny vessels might also become damaged through a variety of conditions, including high blood pressure, low blood pressure, oxidative stress, diabetes or inflammation, he explained.
The goal of the research is to one day target these damaged vessels as a way to slow or prevent Alzheimer's disease, Brickman said.
Limiting the damage to the brain's blood vessels is also important, Brickman said. Keeping body weight and blood pressure levels in the normal range and not smoking can go a long way in preventing Alzheimer's disease, he said. For the study, Brickman's team looked for blood vessel damage in the brains of 20 patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease and in 21 people without the condition. The researchers found that people with Alzheimer's disease had larger areas of damage than those who were not diagnosed with Alzheimer's.
In addition, blood vessel damage in 59 people with mild memory problems who were included in the study were signs that they were at risk for Alzheimer's disease, the researchers added. Brickman noted that these areas of blood vessel damage are seen in most patients with Alzheimer's disease. Anm : Leukoaraiosis is associated with short- and long-term mortality in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. Anm : Personality traits linked to differences in brain structure.
Our personality may be shaped by how our brain works, but in fact the shape of our brain can itself provide surprising clues about how we behave - and our risk of developing mental health disorders - suggests a study published in Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience.
To examine the association between markers of sleep-disordered breathing SDB and white matter hyperintensity WMH volume in an elderly, multiethnic, community-dwelling cohort. The cognitive effects of SDB that are increasingly being recognized may be mediated at the small vessel level. Anm : Blood—brain barrier breakdown is an early biomarker of human cognitive dysfunction. Abstract Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment are increasingly recognized as shown by neuropathological6,7, neuroimaging4,, and cerebrospinal fluid biomarker4,12 studies.
According to the "leaky gut hypothesis", increased intestinal permeability may contribute to this relationship via bacterial translocation across enterocytes. We measured plasma levels of gut permeability markers, in patients with a recent suicide attempt rSA , MDD subjects with no history of a suicide attempt nsMDD , and healthy controls HC , and related these markers to symptom severity and inflammation. These findings should be considered preliminary until replicated in larger cohorts.
Anm : A journey into the brain: insight into how bacterial pathogens cross blood—brain barriers. The blood—brain barrier, which is one of the tightest barriers in the body, protects the brain from insults, such as infections.
Indeed, only a few of the numerous blood-borne bacteria can cross the blood—brain barrier to cause meningitis. In this Review, we focus on invasive extracellular pathogens, such as Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, group B Streptococcus and Escherichia coli, to review the obstacles that bacteria have to overcome in order to invade the meninges from the bloodstream, and the specific skills they have developed to bypass the blood—brain barrier.
The medical importance of understanding how these barriers can be circumvented is underlined by the fact that we need to improve drug delivery into the brain.
Nature Reviews Microbiology Published online 16 January Anm : Serum-borne bioactivity caused by pulmonary multiwalled carbon nanotubes induces neuroinflammation via blood—brain barrier impairment. Inhaled particulates, such as multiwalled carbon nanotubes, can induce neuroinflammatory outcomes.
The present study shows that acute neuroinflammation is dependent on the impairment of blood-brain barrier function. Pharmacologic restoration of blood-brain barrier integrity prevented the neuroinflammatory responses to pulmonary multiwalled carbon nanotube exposure. Circulating factors, including possibly thrombospondin-1, recapitulate inflammatory responses in cultured cerebrovascular endothelial cells, suggesting a mechanism for indirect systemic effects of inhaled nanoparticles.
Alzheimer's disease: Could a leaky blood-brain barrier be involved? These mechanisms could eventually lead to dysfunction in the brain. It is a collection of specialized cells and cellular components that line the walls of blood vessels in the brain and the rest of the central nervous system.
The BBB controls the delivery of important nutrients, blocks substances that can harm the brain, and removes waste from the brain. Anm : Leaky blood-brain barrier linked to Alzheimer's disease. Researchers using contrast-enhanced MRI have identified leakages in the blood-brain barrier BBB of people with early Alzheimer's disease AD , according to a new study published online in the journal Radiology.
The results suggest that increased BBB permeability may represent a key mechanism in the early stages of the disease. Anm : Brain's immune cells key to maintaining blood-brain barrier. New research shows that the cells responsible for protecting the brain from infection and inflammation are also responsible for repairing the system of defenses that separates the brain from the rest of the body.
These findings have significant clinical implications because certain cardiovascular drugs could possibly impede the brain's ability to repair itself after a stroke or other injury.
Anm : Rare neurons enable mental flexibility. Behavioral flexibility -- the ability to change strategy when the rules change -- is controlled by specific neurons in the brain, Researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University OIST have confirmed.
Cholinergic interneurons are rare -- they make up just one to two percent of the neurons in the striatum, a key part of the brain involved with higher-level decision-making. Scientists have suspected they play a role in changing strategies, and researchers at OIST recently confirmed this with experiments.
Their findings were published in The Journal of Neuroscience. Anm : Neuroinflammation after intracerebral hemorrhage Front. Anm : What Is Central Fatigue? Anm : What Is Fatigue? What Causes Fatigue? Anm : Motonevron ; motorisk nevron, nervecelle som direkte innerverer et effektororgan muskel eller kjertel. Betegnelsen brukes oftest om nevroner som innerverer skjelettmuskler. Anm : Serotonin spillover onto the axon initial segment of motoneurons induces central fatigue by inhibiting action potential initiation.
Anm : Brain 5-HT deficiency increases stress vulnerability and impairs antidepressant responses following psychosocial stress. As FDA approves 'pink Viagra' for women, controversy persists latimes.
Food and Drug Administration on Tuesday gave its blessing to the first medication designed to increase sexual desire in women. In tests, the most common side effects of the drug included dizziness, sleepiness, nausea and fatigue. Addyi should be taken at bedtime to reduce these risks, the FDA said. Addyi acts to increase the activity of the neurochemical serotonin in the brain. It was initially developed as an antidepressant, then abandoned by the German drug company Boehringer Ingelheim for lack of effectiveness.
The mechanism by which the drug improves female sexual desire — a hugely complex confluence of hormones, mood, circumstance and physiology — is not known. Concern has largely centered on its potential for inducing dizziness, lightheadedness or fainting caused by a sudden drop in blood pressure. That danger appears greatest when those taking the drug are heavy consumers of alcohol, or take CYP3A4 inhibitors, a class of drugs that includes certain antifungal medications, antibiotics, HIV drugs and blood pressure medications.
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