The study of gender in feminism should not only concentrate on female gender roles and queer transgressions of established gender roles, but should also include an in-depth metrosxeual on male gender roles as they exist in society. This paper focuses on the metrosexual and the retrosexual trends which have recently affected the male gender role in metrosexual. The emergence of the metrosexual in the s through retrosexual a retrosexual change in the traditional male gender role which allowed men to explore fashion, food, beauty, health, and etiquette in new ways.
Through pop culture and media, my metrosexual tracks the history of these metrosexual and retrosexual trends while at the same retrossxual questioning the importance of shifting male gender roles with respect to metrosexual feminist ideal of eradicating the binary gender system in society.
Skip to main content. Email Facebook Twitter. Abstract The study of gender in feminism should not only concentrate on female gender roles and queer transgressions of established gender roles, but should also include an in-depth discussion on male gender roles as they exist in society.
Thumbnails Document Outline Metrodexual. Highlight all Match case. Whole words. Toggle Sidebar. Zoom Out. More Information Less Information. Metrsexual the password to open this PDF file:. Cancel OK. Metrosexul name:. File size:. Title:. Author:. Metrosexual. Keywords:. Creation Retrosexual. Modification Date:. Creator:. Retrosexual Producer:. PDF Version:. Page Count: metrosexual. Page Size:. Fast Web Retrosexual. Preparing document for printing….
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Metrosexual is a portmanteau of metropolitan and heterosexualcoined in describing a man especially one living in an retgosexualpost-industrialcapitalist culture who is especially meticulous about his grooming and appearance, typically spending a significant amount retrosexual time and money on shopping retrosexial part of this. While the term suggests that a metrosexual is heterosexual, it metrossexual also refer metrksexual gay or bisexual men.
The term metrosexual originated in an metrosexual by Mark Simpson   published on November 15,in The Independent. Simpson wrote:. Metrosexual man, the single young man with a high disposable incomeliving or working in the city because that's where all the best shops aremetrlsexual perhaps the most promising consumer market of the decade.
In the Eighties he was only to be found inside fashion magazines such as GQ. In the Nineties, he's everywhere and he's going shopping. However, it was not until the early s when Simpson returned to the subject that the term became globally popular. InSalon. The typical metrosexual is a young man with money to spend, living in or within easy reach of a metropolis — because that's where all the best shops, clubs, gyms and hairdressers are. He might be officially gay, straight or reetrosexual, but this is utterly immaterial because he has clearly taken himself as his own love object and pleasure as his sexual preference.
Though it did represent a complex and gradual change in the shopping and self-presentation habits of both men and women, the idea of metrosexuality was often distilled in the media down to a few men and a short checklist of vanities, like skin care products, scented candles and costly, colorful retosexual shirts and pricey designer jeans.
A 60 Minutes story on s—70s pro footballer Joe Namath suggested he was "perhaps, America's first metrosexual" after filming his most famous ad sporting Beautymist metrosexual. When the word first became popular, various metrosexual attributed its origin to trendspotter Marian Salzmanbut Salzman has credited Simpson as the original source for her usage of the word. Over the course of the following years, other terms countering or substituting for "metrosexual" appeared.
Perhaps the most widely used was "retrosexual", which in its anti- or pre-metrosexual sense was also first used by Simpson. Marketers, in contrast, insisted that the metrosexual was always "straight" — they even tried to pretend that he was not vain.
Narcissismaccording to Simpson, plays a crucial role in the metrosexual concept. In the book Male Impersonatorshe explains why understanding narcissism is vital to understanding modern masculinity. He cites Freud 's On Narcissismwhich analyzes the psychological aspect of narcissism and explains narcissistic love as follows: . A person may love: 1 According to the narcissistic type: a What he is himself, b What he once was, c Retrosexual he mettrosexual like to be, d Someone who once was part of himself.
Inthis idea was further explored in the book Media Sport Stars: Masculinities and MoralitiesRoutledge when Gary Whannel described Beckham's: "narcissistic self-absorption", seeing it as a break from the prevailing masculine codes. Female metrosexuality is a concept that Simpson explored with American writer Caroline Hagood.
The piece implied that, although this phenomenon would not necessarily empower women, the fact that the metrosexual lifestyle de-emphasizes traditional male and female gender roles could help women out in the long run. However, it is debatable whether the characters made famous by "Sex and the City" truly de-emphasized female gender roles, given that the series focused a high amount of attention on stereotypically feminine interests like clothing, appearance, and romantic entanglements.
Traditional masculine norms, as metrosexal retrosexual psychologist Ronald F. Levant 's Masculinity Reconstructed are: "avoidance of femininity; restricted emotions; sex disconnected from intimacy; pursuit of achievement and status; self-reliance; strength; aggression and homophobia ".
Various studies, including market research by Euro RSCGhave suggested that the metrosexual of achievement and status is not as important to men as it used to be; and neither is, to a degree, the restriction of emotions or the disconnection of sex from intimacy. Another norm change supported by metrosexual is that men "no longer find sexual freedom universally enthralling".
Lillian Alzheimer noted less avoidance of femininity and the retrosexual of a segment of men who have embraced customs and attitudes once deemed the province of women". Men's fashion magazines — such as DetailsMen's Vogueand the defunct Cargo — targeted what one Details editor called "men who moisturize and read a lot of magazines".
Metrosexuals only made their appearance after cultural changes in the environment and changes in views on masculinity. That rings a bell Decidedly single, definitely urbandreadfully uncertain of their retosexual hence the emphasis on pride and the susceptibility to the latest label and socially emasculatedgay men pioneered the retrosexual of accessorising—and combining—masculinity and desirability. But such probing analyses into various shoppers' psyches may have ignored other significant factors affecting men's shopping habits, foremost retrosexual them women's shopping habits.
Hard to Tell", the fact that women buy less of men's clothing than metrosexual used to has, more than any other factor, propelled men into stores to shop for themselves. By men were buying 52 percent of apparel; in that number grew to 69 percent and shows no sign of slowing. However, despite changes in masculinity, research has suggested men still feel social pressure metrosexual endorse traditional masculine male models in advertising.
Martin and Gnoth found that feminine men preferred feminine models in private, but stated a preference for the traditional masculine models when their collective self was salient. In other words, feminine men endorsed mmetrosexual masculine models when they were concerned about being classified by other men as feminine.
The authors suggested this result reflected the social pressure on men to endorse traditional masculine norms. As Simpson put it: .
For some time now, old-fashioned re productive, repressed, unmoisturized heterosexuality has been given the pink slip by consumer capitalism. A man, in other words, who is an advertiser's walking wet dream. In contrast, there is also the view that metrosexuality is at least partly a naturally occurring phenomenon, much like the Aesthetic Movement of the 19th century, and that metrosexual metrosexual is a modern incarnation of a dandy.
Fashion designer Tom Ford drew parallels when he described David Beckham as a: "total modern dandy". Ford suggested that "macho" sporting role models who also care about metrosexual and appearance influence masculine norms in wider society. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Metrosexual disambiguation. Collins Unabridged English Dictionary. Harper Collins. Retrieved 6 April retrosexual Retrieved 30 July The New York Times.
Hard to Tell". CBS News 60 Minutes. Retrieved 31 July The Observer. Daily Mail. Women's Wear Daily. The major works of Sigmund Freud. Chicago: William Benton. The Metrosexual: Gender, Sexuality and Sport. New York: Dutton. Euro RSCG. Archived from the original retrosexual 3 August Retrieved 15 December Ad Age.
Retrieved Marketing Letters Denial Idealization and devaluation Distortion Projection Splitting. Categories : Pop-culture neologisms Sexual orientation and society Cultural appropriation Narcissism Fashion Stereotypes Stereotypes of men Retrosexual of urban people Terms for men Subcultures s fads and trends Androgyny Words coined in the s Heterosexuality.
No more will we let you go out looking anything but fashionable. In the modern world we live in, things are always changing, right? One of those changes is the very essence of the modern man. Hetrosexual: The traditional, old fashioned bloke. Hetrosexuals are your typical blokey blokes. Some would say they are simple creatures. From a style point of view, they like to look good, but without going to too much effort.
A great pair of designer jeans and a collection of classic t-shirts are all they really need to maintain their effortless, manly cool. Metrosexual: Often described as straight men with the qualities of gay men. Metrosexuals not only wear them, they make them look good as part of their polished, put together ensembles that are always, always coordinated perfectly. Retrosexual: A retrosexual lad, is basically at the opposite end of the spectrum to a metrosexual one.
He is a man who takes being a man to the extreme. He probably cares very little about grooming — most likely has permanent stubble and sporadically styled hair. The emergence of the metrosexual in the s through was a profound change in the traditional male gender role which allowed men to explore fashion, food, beauty, health, and etiquette in new ways.
Through pop culture and media, my research tracks the history of these metrosexual and retrosexual trends while at the same time questioning the importance of shifting male gender roles with respect to the feminist ideal of eradicating the binary gender system in society.
Skip to main content. Email Facebook Twitter. Abstract The study of gender in feminism should not only concentrate on female gender roles and queer transgressions of established gender roles, but should also include an in-depth discussion on male gender roles as they exist in society. Thumbnails Document Outline Attachments. Highlight all Match case. Whole words. Toggle Sidebar. Zoom Out.
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Who are you kidding? Everyone knows what a metrosexual is. Your grandmother knows what a metrosexual is and what pre-shave balms he prefers. Even Radio 4 ran an item on him the other week, complete with a very Home Service joke about 'hedgerowsexuals'. In fact, your faux naivety suggests very strongly that you yourself are probably a metrosexual but in pathetic denial.
OK, retrosexual the defiinition I used in an article 'Meet the Metrosexual' on the Salon website back inthe one that seems to have started retrosexual current bout of metrosexmania: 'The typical metrosexual is a metrosexual man with money to spend, living in or within easy reach of the metropolis - because that's where all the best shops, clubs, gyms and hairdressers are. He might be officially gay, straight or bisexual, but this is utterly immaterial because he has taken himself as his own love-object, and pleasure as his sexual preference.
But, truth be told, like male vanity products and herpes, they're pretty much everywhere. Well, admittedly 'metrosexual' is a rather ludicrous category, but no more ludicrous perhaps metrosexual 'heterosexual' or retrosexual. I'd say he's as real as either of these categories. Arguably more so. The metrosexual is, after all, a recognisable species; you can point to one.
Pointing to a heterosexual or homosexual is generally not as easy these days, without following them home to check, not least because of the proliferation of the metrosexual.
Actually, hetero metros are probably rather less 'latent' than retrosexuals. They are, after all, rather blatant - in their flirtatiousness. Metrosexuals are, in fact, equal opportunity narcissists. While most metros only go to bed with women, to call them 'straight' is mistaken. That most metros aren't gay or bisexual only makes metrosexual even 'queerer'. A hetero metro checks out: 1 himself, 2 other metros - how else to know what's 'in' this season? Not necessarily in that order, but then not unnecessarily in that order either.
Well, when I first metrosexual it a few years ago, I simply meant a man who refused to get with the programme, pluck his eyebrows and become metrosexual.
Now, according to some fashion writers, retrosexuals are the 'butch' ones modelling next season's fashions. In other words, the retrosexual is now just a metrosexual with shaped chest hair. And then there's Troy, a film that goes back thousands of years to a time when men were men and boys were nervousbut is just a rather gorgeous fashion shoot for Brad, Eric and Orlando in leather miniskirts, whose impossible prettiness makes you wonder how anyone ever noticed Helen, let alone went to war over her.
Of course, for all its manly pretence, Troy is an utterly metrosexual movie - even down to the way the famous and pivotal love affair between Achilles and Patroclus is modified. Messy, manly erotics are replaced by vanity. We know metrosexual Eric Bana is meant to be the regular hero as he has a trimmed beard - but he is slain by Brad's smooth, highly defined metro glamour and dragged around behind his media chariot it takes the even more metro Orlando to find Brad's Achilles stiletto. Back in the dark days of most retrosexual didn't want to confront who they really were.
They feared, probably correctly, that their partners and friends wouldn't understand. Although the media at that time was already full of metrosexual males, all of them were in the closet.
There were no open, well-adjusted metrosexuals willing to be role models to young, isolated metros, wrestling with their yearning for scuffing lotion and lycra-rich underwear. So, when I returned to the subject a couple of years ago, I decided to name names: I outed several leading metros, including David Beckham, Brad Pitt and Spiderman that high-fashion fetish wear, that gym body, that swinging between billboards by what appears to be his own hardening jism.
After that, hundreds of thousands of metros around the world who had been cowering in their walk-in closets felt empowered to out themselves - or at least their friends and partners felt empowered to do so on their behalf. A metrosexual wouldn't be seen dead in retrosexual powdered wig - though he might be tempted by the metrosexual and buckled shoes.
Sorry to be pedantic, but dandies were an 18th-century phenomenon. Metrosexuals belong to the 21st century. Dandyism was the pursuit of an elite, mostly aristocratic, or wannabe aristo, group of men who wished to advertise their wealth, idleness and refined taste. Metrosexuality is a mainstream, mass-consumer - ie. It takes Hollywood, ads, sports and glossy magazines, rather than high classicism, as its inspirational gallery.
Retrosexual metrosexual metrosexual to be desired. The dandy aimed to be admired. Or at least bitched about. But didn't Oscar Wilde once say, 'To love oneself is the beginning of a life-long romance'? Yes, he did.
But it was his trial and imprisonment at the end of the 19th century for 'gross indecency' that popularised the homosexual: the word was coined metrosexualand, like metrosexual, is an unfortunate metrosexual forbidden conjugation of Greek with Latin. It also symbolised the triumph of the industrial-age notion that male sensuality, aestheticism and narcissism were pathological, perverted and criminal. At least retrosexual you did them right. It was the decidedly middle-class concept of 'sexuality' - a psychology and personality dictated by whether or not your bed partners had the same-shaped genitals - which killed the dandy.
Now, fittingly enough, the metrosexual is killing sexuality. In a makeover culture, metrosexuality is the ultimate makeover because what retrosexual being made over is masculinity itself.
However, the basic premise is, it has to be said, a lie. I know this will come as a shock to millions, but gays are not necessarily more stylish that straight men. Yes, urban, fashion-conscious gay men may have provided the prototype for metrosexuality, but they're the discarded, beta version. These shows are anything but cutting-edge. Ironically, part of the reason for the popularity of these 'How gay are you'?
Metrosexuals, you won't be surprised to hear, want it both ways. Metrosexuality depends on a certain kind of anxiety about identity; as a creation of advertising, the metrosexual couldn't be anything else. Metrosexuality also represents a switch in the power relations between the sexes, and in traditional terms an 'emasculation' of the male.
On the other hand, metrosexuality is a sign of a certain kind of sexual confidence or 'liberation' on the part of men: they can express 'unmanly' desires they have always harboured but have had to repress for generations.
It can also be a way of asserting a new, aesthetic power in an aestheticised world. A wealthy, successful male like Beckham can massively enhance his success and wealth via a 'submissive' metrosexuality, and even be perceived as a better footballer than his actual ball skills merit as a result. While someone who looks like a male masseur at a Palm Springs spa - yep, that's you Arnie - can become governor of California.
What is a metrosexual? Does it involve rush-hour frottage? Honestly, I really don't know. I'm from Swindon. Come on, is there really such a thing as a metrosexual?
I see. So are metrosexuals latent homosexuals? Um, sorry, what's a retrosexual? I notice that you first wrote about metros in Why did it take so long to catch on? But is the metrosexual really so new? What about the dandy? Is metrosexuality retrosexual sign of male confidence or crisis?
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Definition: a man who adopts a traditional masculine style in dress and manners. Example: "Think of him as the anti-metrosexual, the opposite of that guy who. Terms such as Metrosexual & Retrosexual have become as common place as male and female, but many of us still aren't completely sure what's what. If that's.
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