Intersex people are individuals born with any of several variations in sex characteristics including chromosomesgonadssex hormonesor genitals that, according to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights"do not fit the typical definitions for male or female bodies". Intersex people were previously referred to as hermaphrodites or "congenital eunuchs". It was the first attempt at creating a taxonomic classification system of intersex conditions. Intersex people were categorized as either having true wikifemale pseudohermaphroditismor male pseudohermaphroditism.
Intersex people face intersex and discrimination from birth, or from discovery of an intersex trait, such as from puberty. This may include infanticide, abandonment and the stigmatization of families. However, this is considered controversial, with no firm evidence of favorable outcomes.
Adults, including elite female athletes, have also been subjects of such treatment. Some intersex persons may be assigned and raised as a girl or boy but then identify with another gender later in life, while most continue to identify with their assigned sex. Intersex people are born with sex characteristics including genitals, gonads and chromosome patterns that do not fit typical binary notions of male or female bodies.
Intersex is an umbrella term used to describe a wide range of natural bodily variations. In some cases, intersex traits are visible at birth while in others, they are not apparent until puberty.
Some chromosomal intersex variations may not be physically apparent at all. In biological terms, sex may be determined by a number of factors present at birth, including: . People whose characteristics are not either all typically male or all typically female at birth are intersex. Some intersex traits are not always visible at birth; some babies may be born with ambiguous genitals, while others may have ambiguous internal organs testes and ovaries.
Others will not become aware that they are intersex unless they receive genetic testing, because it does not manifest in their phenotype. Whether or not they were socially tolerated or accepted by any particular culture, the existence of intersex people was known to many ancient and pre-modern cultures.
The Greek historian Diodorus Siculus wrote of the mythological Hermaphroditus in the first century BCE, who was "born with a physical body which is a combination of that of a man and that of a woman", and reputedly possessed supernatural properties.
In European societies, Roman lawpost-classical canon lawand later common lawreferred to a person's sex as male, female or hermaphrodite, with legal rights as male or female depending on the characteristics that appeared most dominant.
Some of these cultures, for instance the South-Asian Hijra communities,  may include intersex people in a third gender category. Although—according to Morgan Holmes —early Western intersex categorized such cultures "primitive," Holmes has argued that analyses of these cultures have been simplistic or romanticized and fail to take account of the ways that subjects of all categories are treated.
During the Victorian eramedical authors introduced the terms " true hermaphrodite " for an individual who has both ovarian and testicular tissue, "male pseudo-hermaphrodite" for a person with testicular tissue, but either female or ambiguous sexual anatomy, and "female pseudo-hermaphrodite" for a person with ovarian tissue, but either male or ambiguous sexual anatomy.
Some later shifts in terminology have reflected advances in genetics, while other shifts are suggested to be due to pejorative associations. The term intersexuality was coined by Richard Goldschmidt in Since the rise of modern medical science, some intersex people with ambiguous external genitalia have had their genitalia surgically modified to resemble either female or male genitals.
Surgeons pinpointed intersex babies as a "social emergency" when born. Dialogue between what were once antagonistic groups of activists and clinicians has led to only slight changes in medical policies and how intersex intersex and their families are treated in some locations. Human rights institutions are placing increasing scrutiny on harmful practices and issues of discrimination against intersex people.
These issues have been addressed by a rapidly increasing number of international institutions including, inthe Council of Europe, the United Nations Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and the World Health Organization.
These developments have been accompanied by International Intersex Forums and increased cooperation amongst civil society organizations. However, the implementation, codification, and enforcement of intersex human rights in national legal systems remains slow.
Stigmatization and discrimination from birth may include infanticide, abandonment, and the stigmatization of families. As noted in the "Intersex human rights" page, the birth of wiki intersex child was often viewed as a curse or a sign of a witch mother, especially in parts of Africa.
Infants, children and adolescents also experience "normalising" interventions on intersex intersex that are medically unnecessary and the pathologisation of variations in sex characteristics. In countries where the human rights of intersex people have been studied, medical interventions to modify the sex characteristics of intersex people have still taken place without the consent of the intersex person.
Such interventions have been criticized by the World Health Organization, other UN bodies such as the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, and an increasing number of regional and national institutions due to their adverse consequences, including trauma, impact on sexual function and sensation, and violation of rights to physical and mental integrity.
People born with intersex bodies wiki seen as different, intersex infants, children, adolescents wiki adults "are often stigmatized and subjected to multiple human rights violations", including discrimination in education, healthcare, employment, sport, and public services. Access to informationmedical records, peer and other counselling and support.
With the rise of modern medical science in Western societies, a secrecy-based model was also adopted, in intersex belief that this was necessary to ensure "normal" physical and psychosocial development. The Asia Pacific Forum of National Human Rights Institutions states that legal recognition is firstly "about intersex people who have been issued a male or a female birth certificate being able to enjoy the same legal rights as other men and women.
A Kenyan court case in established the right of an intersex boy, "Baby A", to a birth certificate. Like all individuals, some intersex individuals may be raised as a certain sex male or female but then identify with another later in life, while most do not.
Research in the late 20th century led to a growing medical consensus that diverse intersex bodies are normal, but relatively rare, forms of human biology. Foremost, we advocate use of the terms "typical", "usual", or "most frequent" where it is more common to use the term "normal. Emphasize that all of these conditions are biologically understandable while they are statistically uncommon.
Some people with intersex traits self-identify as intersex, and some do not. Some intersex organizations reference "intersex people" and "intersex variations or traits"  while others use more medicalized language such as "people with intersex conditions",  or people "with intersex conditions or DSDs differences of sex development intersex and "children born with variations of sex anatomy".
A hermaphrodite is an organism that has both male and female reproductive organs. Until the midth century, "hermaphrodite" was used synonymously with "intersex". Currently, hermaphroditism is not to be confused with intersex, as the former refers only to a specific phenotypical presentation of sex organs and intersex latter to a more complex combination of phenotypical and genotypical wiki.
Using hermaphrodite to refer to intersex individuals is considered to be stigmatizing and misleading. Members of the Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society and the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology adopted this term in their "Consensus statement on management of intersex disorders". Alternatives to categorizing intersex conditions as "disorders" have been suggested, including "variations of sex development".
Intersex can be contrasted with homosexuality or same-sex attraction. Intersex can therefore be contrasted with transgender which is the condition in which one's gender identity does not match one's assigned sex.
The relationship of intersex to lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans, and queer communities is complex,  but intersex people are often added to LGBT to create an LGBTI community. Emi Koyama describes how inclusion of intersex in LGBTI can fail to address intersex-specific human rights issues, including creating false impressions "that intersex people's rights are protected" by laws protecting LGBT people, and failing to acknowledge that many intersex people are not LGBT.
Television works about intersex and films about intersex are scarce. Intersex peer support and advocacy organizations have existed since at leastwith the establishment of the Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group Australia in Intersex Awareness Day is an internationally observed civil awareness day designed to highlight the challenges faced by intersex people, occurring annually on 26 October.
It marks the first public demonstration by intersex people, which took place in Boston on 26 Octoberoutside a venue where the American Academy of Pediatrics was holding its annual conference. Intersex Day of Remembrancealso known as Intersex Solidarity Day, is an internationally observed civil awareness day designed to highlight issues faced by intersex people, occurring annually on 8 November. In HinduismSangam literature uses the word pedi to refer to people born with an intersex condition; it also refers to antharlinga hijras and various other hijras.
In Islamscholars of Islamic jurisprudence have detailed discussions on the status and rights of intersex based on what mainly exhibits in their external sexual organs. Yet, modern Islamic jurisprudence scholars turn to medical screening to determine the dominance of their sex. The intersex rights include rights of inheritance, rights to marriage, rights to live like any other male or female. The rights are generally based on whether they are true hermaphrodites or pseudohermaphrodite.
Scholars of Islamic jurisprudence generally consider their rights based on the majority of what appears from their external sexual organs. In Judaismthe Talmud contains extensive discussion concerning the status of two intersex types in Jewish law; namely the androgynouswhich exhibits both male and female external sexual organs, and the tumtum which exhibits neither.
In the s and s, the treatment of intersex wiki started to be discussed in Orthodox Jewish medical halacha by prominent rabbinic leaders, for example Eliezer Waldenberg and Moshe Feinstein. In Anitismthe wife of Bathalathe supreme god of the Tagalog peoplewas the hermaphrodite deity Lakapati, who served as queen of the celestial abode and court called Kaluwalhatian.
She was also the ancient deity of fertility and is highly regarded as the Tagalog pantheon's most intersex feminine figure. Her relationship with the supreme god, Bathala, was symbolic for the ancient Tagalogs as it referred to marriage as a mutual bond between two parties regardless of gender, which was a common practice at the time. The chant and prayer portrayed Lakapati as an all-powerful deity who had control of one's life.
Prominent among deities who received full-blown sacrifices, Lakapati is fittingly represented by a hermaphrodite image with both male and female parts and was worshiped in the fields at planting time. Her bodily expression is notably feminine. The ancient Tagalogs believed that the hermaphrodite image of Lakapati depicted the "balance of everything". During early Spanish rule, Lakapati was depicted as the Holy Spirit, as the people continued to revere her despite Spanish threats.
Modern interpretations have stated that Lakapati was transgender, although in a historical context, Lakapati was known as a hermaphrodite or intersex and not a transgender person. The South African middle-distance runner Caster Semenya won gold at the World Championships in the women's metres and wiki silver in the Summer Olympics. The results were not released. Semenya was ruled eligible to compete. Katrina KarkazisRebecca Jordan-YoungGeorgiann Davis and Silvia Camporesi have claimed that IAAF policies on "hyperandrogenism" in female athletes, are "significantly flawed", arguing that the policy will not protect against breaches of privacy, will require athletes to undergo unnecessary treatment wiki order to compete, and will intensify "gender policing".
They recommend that athletes be able to compete in accordance with their legally recognised gender. In Aprilthe BMJ reported that four elite women athletes with 5-ARD an intersex medical condition were subjected to sterilization and "partial clitoridectomies" in order to compete in sport.
The authors noted that partial clitoridectomy was "not wiki indicated" and "does not relate to real or perceived athletic 'advantage'. There are few firm estimates of the number of intersex people. The now-defunct Intersex Society of North America stated that:. If you ask experts at medical centers how often a child is born so noticeably atypical in terms of genitalia that a specialist in sex differentiation is called in, the number comes out to about 1 in to 1 in births [0.
But a lot more people than that are born with subtler forms of sex anatomy variations, some of which won't show up until later in life. Blackless, Fausto-Sterling et al. The figure of 1. Individuals with diagnoses of disorders of sex development DSD may or may not experience stigma and discrimination due to their sex characteristics, including sex "normalizing" interventions.
Human rights institutions have called for the de-medicalization of intersex traits, as far as possible. The following summarizes some prevalence figures of intersex traits a fuller 'List of conditions' is provided below, at the end of 'Medical classifications' :.
Population figures can vary due to genetic causes. In the Dominican Republic5-alpha-reductase deficiency is not uncommon in the town of Las Salinasresulting in social acceptance of the intersex trait. The overall incidence for the town was 1 in every 90 males were carriers, with other males either non-carriers or non-affected carriers.
Intersex refers to any biological ambiguity of an animal or human's sex from "chromosomes, gonads, sex hormones, or wiki. Intersex can be distinguished from transsexualismin that intersex individuals have natural physical sex ambiguity; whereas intersex ambiguity in a transsexual's body is artificial. Like transsexual individuals, intersex individuals sometimes come to feel they were assigned the wrong gender at birth, and seek to change wiki assignment; this is generally distinguished from transsexualism, though it tends to wiki used to support the supposition that each person has an intrinsic gender identity that cannot wiki wrongfully imposed.
Non-intersex humans are called perisex or dyadic. Inteersex with an ambiguous sex were previously labeled as hermaphrodites ; however, this has since dropped out of wiki due to intersex correctly describing said individuals. Medical operations are commonly done to intersex intersex, mainly for cosmetic purposes.
Intersex operations have wiki history of doing more harm than no good,   intersex inflicting victims patients with life long issues because ingersex wiki ambiguity was too egregious.
To date, intersexes are not protected under law in most countries wiki the world. The election booth for the RationalWiki Moderator Election is now closed. Results will be announced soon! Jump to: navigationsearch. Explicit protection on grounds of sex characteristics.
Explicit protection on grounds intersex intersex status. Explicit protection on grounds of intersex within attribute of sex. October 24, Intersex violence and harmful medical practices on intersex children and wiki, UN and regional experts urge". Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. Gender Politics and intersex Construction of Sexuality. New York: Basic Books.
Journal of Intersex Endocrinology and Metabolism. Retrieved 27 July Sexual health, human rights and the law.
Geneva: World Wiki Organization. Discrimination and violence against individuals based on their sexual orientation and gender identity. This biology -related article is a stub. You can help RationalWiki by wiki it. Categories : Wiki Gender.
Intersex categories: Pages containing cite templates with deprecated parameters Articles with unsourced statements Biology-related stubs. Namespaces Page Talk. Views Read Edit Fossil record. Support Donate. Community Saloon bar To do list What intersex going on? Social media Twitter Interwex Discord Reddit.
This page was last modified on 11 Aprilat Unless explicitly noted otherwise, all content licensed as intersex by RationalWiki:Copyrights. One of our pieces on Biology. Life as intersex know it. Divide and multiply. Bigender pride flag, created by Natalie Phox in Intersex pride woki, created by Organisation Intersex International Australia in
Page Discussion. Read View source View history. Jump to: navigation , search. Context of the study Organotin compounds like TBT used in antifouling paints can disrupt the endocrine system of many gastropod species. This page was last edited on 13 March , at Search taxa. Browse taxa. Intersex was one of the 56 genders made available on Facebook in In action, dyadism is discrimination against intersex people. That discrimination can include erasure, harassment, medical malpractice, lack of marriage rights, religious intolerance, human rights violations, and hate crimes against intersex people.
Because of dyadism, doctors think of intersex conditions as an irregularity. As a result, intersex people were given so-called "normalizing" or "corrective" surgeries, often at a very young age, and without their consent.
The Intersex Society of North America closed its doors and stopped updating this website in For current information, links to intersex support groups, and to connect with intersex advocates, please head to interACT: Advocates for Intersex Youth.
For example, a person might be born appearing to be female on the outside, but having mostly male-typical anatomy on the inside. Or a person may be born with genitals that seem to be in-between the usual male and female types—for example, a girl may be born with a noticeably large clitoris, or lacking a vaginal opening, or a boy may be born with a notably small penis, or with a scrotum that is divided so that it has formed more like labia.
Or a person may be born with mosaic genetics, so that some of her cells have XX chromosomes and some of them have XY. Some people live and die with intersex anatomy without anyone including themselves ever knowing. Which variations of sexual anatomy count as intersex?
Intersexin humans and other animals, is a variation in sex characteristics including chromosomes, gonads, or genitals that do not allow an individual to intersex distinctly identified as male or female.
Such variation may involve genital ambiguity, and wiki of chromosomal genotype ontersex sexual phenotype other than XY-male and XX-female. However, this is considered controversial, with no firm evidence of good outcomes.
Adults, including elite female athletes, have also been subjects wiki such treatment. In AprilMalta became the first country to outlaw non-consensual medical interventions to modify sex anatomy, including intersex of intersex people.
Research  in the late 20th century indicates intersex growing medical consensus that diverse intersex bodies are normal—if relatively rare—forms of human woki. Intersex Diamond, one wi,i the most outspoken experts on matters wiki intersex people, stresses the importance of wi,i in the selection of language related to such people. Like all individuals, intersex people have various gender identities. Most identify as either a woman or man, while wiki may identify as neither exclusively wiki woman nor exclusively a man.
Some intersex individuals may be intersex as a woman or man wiii then identify with another gender identity later in life. Sign In Don't have an account? Start intersex Wiki. Wiki Video. Intersex Image. This article needs serious wiki. Please see its talk page for ideas. New Intersex, NY [u. Categories :. Wiki Save.
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Intersex refers to the state of a gonochoristic species whose sex chromosomes, genitalia, and/or secondary sex characteristics are determined to be neither. An intersex person has sex characteristics wheretobuycialis.info anatomy, reproductive organs, and/or chromosome patterns that do not fit the typical definition of male or.
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