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The following 36 pages are in wiki category, out of 36 total. This hormones may not reflect recent changes learn more. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Biology portal Medicine portal. The main article for this category is Sex steroid. Subcategories This category has wiki following female subcategories, out of 10 total. Pages in category "Sex hormones" The following 36 pages are in sex category, out of 36 total. A Adrenosterone Androgen Antiandrogen.

D Dehydroandrosterone Dehydroepiandrosterone Dihydrotestosterone. Sex Follicle-stimulating hormone. G Gonadotropin Gonadotropin hormones inhibitor Gonadotropin-releasing hormone. K Ketodihydrotestosterone Ketotestosterone. L Luteinizing hormone. P Progesterone Progestogen. S Sex-hormonal agent Steroidal antiandrogen. T Testosterone. Categories : Reproductive system Sex Hormones by action Drugs acting on the genito-urinary system Hormones female the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis Biology of gender.

Namespaces Category Talk. Views Read Edit View sex. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. By hormones this site, you agree to the Terms female Use and Privacy Policy.

Wiki Commons has media related to Sex hormones.


Sexual motivation is influenced by hormones such as testosteroneestrogenprogesteroneoxytocinand vasopressin. In most mammalian species, sex hormones control sex ability to engage in sexual behaviors. However, sex hormones do not directly regulate the ability to copulate in primates including humans.

Rather, sex hormones in primates are only one influence on the motivation to engage in sexual behaviours. Sexual motivation can be measured using a variety of different techniques.

Self-report measures, such as the Sexual Desire Inventory, are commonly used to detect levels of sexual motivation in humans. Self-report techniques such as the bogus pipeline can be used to ensure individuals do not falsify their answers to represent socially desirable female.

Sexual motivation can also be implicitly examined through frequency of sexual behaviour, including masturbation. Female appears to be a major contributing factor to sexual motivation in male primates, including humans. The elimination of testosterone hormones adulthood has hormones shown to reduce sex motivation in both male humans and male primates. It is postulated that the motivating effects of testosterone in male rhesus monkeys promotes successful sexual competition hormones may be particularly important motivating tools for low ranking males.

Wiki levels in males have been shown wiki vary according to the ovulating state of females. Males who were exposed to scents of ovulating women recorded higher testosterone levels than males who were exposed to scents of nonovulating women. Ultimately, these higher levels of testosterone may increase the sex success sex males exposed to female ovulation cues. The relationship between testosterone and female sexual motivation is somewhat ambiguous. Research suggests androgenssuch as testosterone, are not female by themselves to prompt sexual motivation in females.

In particular, hormones with rhesus macaques have observed testosterone was not significantly associated with variations in level female sexual motivation in females. Adrenalectomized female rhesus monkeys displayed diminished female sexual receptivity. It is also suggested that levels of testosterone are related to the type of relationship in which one is involved. Men involved in polyamorous relationships display higher levels of testosterone than men involved in either a single partner relationship or single men.

Estrogens and progesterone typically regulate motivation to engage in sexual reproduction behaviour for females in mammalian species, though the relationship between hormones and female sexual motivation is not sex well understood. In particular, estrogens have been shown to correlate positively with increases in female sexual motivation, and progesterone has been associated with decreases in female sexual motivation.

At this time, mating can result in female pregnancy. Females at different stages wiki their menstrual cycle have been shown to display differences in sexual attraction. Heterosexual females not using birth control pills who are ovulating high levels of sex have a preference for the scent of males with low levels of fluctuating asymmetry. Following natural or surgically induced menopausemany women experience declines in sexual motivation. In her memoir She's Not There: A Life in Two Genderstransgender woman Female Finney Boylan wrote that taking estrogens and antiandrogens profoundly diminished her libidowiki and in transgender woman Julia Serano 's memoir Whipping Girl: A Transsexual Woman on Sexism and the Scapegoating of FemininitySerano female, in a section of her book she described as limited to hormonal changes that she said are experienced by many trans women she has spoken with, that a sharp decrease in her sex drive was the first thing she noticed when she started taking estrogens and antiandrogens.

The hormones oxytocin and vasopressin are implicated in regulating both male and female sexual motivation. Oxytocin is released at orgasm and is associated with both sexual pleasure and the formation sex emotional bonds.

Emotional closeness can be an especially strong predictor of sexual motivation in females and hormones oxytocin release may subsequently diminish sexual reproduction arousal and motivation in females.

High levels of sex can lead to decreases in sexual motivation for females. Vasopressin levels have been shown to increase during erectile response in male sexual reproduction arousal, and decrease back to baseline following ejaculation. The hormonal influences of sexual motivation are much more clearly understood for nonprimate females. Suppression of estrogen receptors in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus in female rats has been observed to reduce female proceptivity and receptivity.

In addition, female rats receiving doses of estrogen and progesterone were more likely to exert effort at gaining sexual reproduction attention from a male rat. An increase in vasopressin has been observed in female rats which have just given birth. Vasopressin is associated with aggressive and hostile behaviours, and is postulated to decrease sexual motivation in females.

Vasopressin administered in the female rat brain has been observed to result in an immediate decrease in sexual motivation. Wiki research has been conducted on the effect of hormones on reproduction motivation for same-sex sexual contact.

One study observed the relationship between sexual motivation in lesbian and bisexual women and period-related changes in circulating estrogen hormones. Both lesbian and bisexual women showed decreases in reproduction motivation for wiki sexual contact at peak estrogen levels, with greater changes in the bisexual group than the lesbian group. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Sexual reproduction Body odour and sexual attraction Hypoactive sexual desire disorder Sexual desire and intimate relationships Menopause Menstrual cycle Pheromone.

Hormones and Behavior. Psychological Science. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. Journal of Neuroendocrinology. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Current Directions in Psychological Science. Journal for female Theory of Social Behaviour. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Hormones not there: a hormones in two hormones 1st trade female. New York: Broadway Books. Berkeley: Seal Press. Gender differences in sexual motivation.

Journal of Neuroscience Methods. Archives of Sexual Behavior. J Sex Med. Front Neuroendocrinol. Dissociating behavioral, autonomic, and neuroendocrine effects of androgen steroids in animal models. Methods Mol. Hormones in Molecular Biology. A systematic review". Int J Women's Health. BJU Int. Lancet Oncol. World J. A preliminary review of its wiki and pharmacokinetic female, and therapeutic efficacy in female prostatic cancer". In contrast, nearly all patients treated with oestrogens or estramustine phosphate reported loss of sexual potency.

Of mice and men: the many guises of estrogens. Sex Schering Found Symp Proc. Ernst Schering Foundation Symposium Proceedings. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. Expert Opin Drug Saf. Radiother Wiki. Dutasteride sex Bicalutamide is a regimen of non-inferior efficacy to LHRH agonist based regimens for prostate volume reduction prior to permanent implant prostate brachytherapy.

Wiki Behav. Nat Rev Urol. World Health Organization. J Womens Health Larchmt. Minerva Ginecol. Among the slight and temporary adverse wiki [of flutamide], most frequently reported and not requesting treatment discontinuation were headache 7. Clin Interv Aging. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. Hidden categories: CS1: long volume value All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from February Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.

By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

This list may not reflect recent changes learn more. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Biology portal Medicine portal. The main article for this category is Sex steroid. Subcategories This category has the following 10 subcategories, out of 10 total. Pages in category "Sex hormones" The following 36 pages are in this category, out of 36 total. A Adrenosterone Androgen Antiandrogen. D Dehydroandrosterone Dehydroepiandrosterone Dihydrotestosterone.

F Follicle-stimulating hormone. G Gonadotropin Gonadotropin release inhibitor Gonadotropin-releasing hormone. K Ketodihydrotestosterone Ketotestosterone. Neumann, H. Steinbeck, K. Brotherton, H. Horn, R. Wagner 27 November World Journal of Urology. Drug Intell Clin Pharm. When used in a dose of 40 mg tid, in combination with estradiol 0.

Lemke; David A. Williams Foye's Principles of Medicinal Chemistry. Clin Obstet Gynecol. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. Figg; Cindy H. Chau; Eric J. Small 14 September Drug Management of Prostate Cancer. Chabner; Dan L. Longo 8 November Cancer Chemotherapy and Biotherapy: Principles and Practice. Care of transsexual persons". Hormone Research in Paediatrics. Res Rep Urol. Expert Opin Drug Saf. Controversies in the Treatment of Prostate Cancer. Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers.

Demos Medical Publishing. Ramon; L. Denis 5 June Prostate Cancer. Case Reports in Gastroenterology. Non-steroidal antiandrogens include flutamide, nilutamide, and bicalutamide, which do not lower androgen levels and may be favorable for individuals who want to preserve sex drive and fertility [9].

BJU International. Traditionally, patients have been advised to cryopreserve sperm prior to starting cross-sex hormone therapy as there is a potential for a decline in sperm motility with high-dose estrogen therapy over time Lubbert et al. However, this decline in fertility due to estrogen therapy is controversial due to limited studies. The Leydig Cell in Health and Disease. Estrogens are highly efficient inhibitors of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-testicular axis — Aside from their negative feedback action at the level of the hypothalamus and pituitary, direct inhibitory effects on the testis are likely , Estrogens act primarily through negative feedback at the hypothalamic-pituitary level to reduce LH secretion and testicular androgen synthesis.

This prolonged suppression is thought to result from a direct effect of estrogens on the Leydig cells. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. Ratliff; William J. Catalona 6 December Genitourinary Cancer: Basic and Clinical Aspects. Womens Health Lond. Strauss; Jerome F. Barbieri 13 September Yen and Jaffe's Reproductive Endocrinology. Eur Urol Focus.

Rev Urol. How serious is it? Drug Saf. De Groot 25 February Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric E-Book. Can J Psychiatry. Archived from the original on 16 May Therapy with GnRH analogs is expensive and requires intramuscular injections of depot formulations, the insert of a subcutaneous implant yearly, or, much less commonly, daily subcutaneous injections.

Practical Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Vokes; Harvey M. Golomb 28 June Oncologic Therapies. Retrieved 31 July Best Pract. Prostate Suppl. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. Chronic Stress. Korean J Urol. Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig. Sex Med Rev. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. Curr Clin Pharmacol. Ann Pharmacother. Whiting; Ralph M. Hair Growth and Disorders. Hair Loss and Restoration, Second Edition. Male Alopecia: Guide to Successful Management.

Trends Pharmacol. A review of cross-sex hormonal treatments, outcomes and adverse effects in transwomen". J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. J Sex Med. Curr Opin Urol. Current Sexual Health Reports. Williams 24 January Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Developmental Biology.

Suzanne; Bland, Kirby I. The Breast. Trends Endocrinol. Brucker; Tekoa L. King 8 September Pharmacology for Women's Health. Meyer; Mary E. Northridge 12 March Israel; Donald E. Tarver; Joy Diane Shaffer 1 March Temple University Press. The Transgender Phenomenon. SAGE Publications. Archives of Sexual Behavior. Mishell; Val Davajan Reproductive endocrinology, infertility, and contraception. Davis Co. It has been suggested that progestins be added during the last week of each cycle of estrogen therapy in order to develop more rounded breasts rather than the conical breasts many of these patients develop, but we have been unable to detect any difference in breast contour with or without progestins.

Endocrine-Related Cancer. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia. Pediatric Endocrinology. These effects are due to the presence of progesterone. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Copstead-Kirkhorn; Jacquelyn L. Banasik 25 June Pathophysiology - E-Book.

Throughout the reproductive years, some women note swelling of the breast around the latter part of each menstrual cycle before the onset of menstruation. The water retention and subsequent swelling of breast tissue during this phase of the menstrual cycle are thought to be due to high levels of circulating progesterone stimulating the secretory cells of the breast.

Obstet Gynecol Surv. Toxicol Pathol. Menopausal Review. Becker Principles and Practice of Endocrinology and Metabolism. Mohler Manual of Vascular Diseases. Experimentally I have been able to induce lactogenesis in a male transvestite whose testes had been removed some years before and whose breasts had been well developed over a long period with stilbestrol and ethisterone. For the next month daily injections of 10 mg. These injections were continued for another month, increasing progesterone to mg.

Both hormones were then withdrawn, and daily injections of increasing doses of prolactin and somatotropin were given for four days; at the same time, the patient used a breast bump four times daily for 5 minutes on both sides.

During this time the mammary veins were visibly enlarged and on the sixth and seventh days 1 to 2 cc. The American Journal of Surgical Pathology. The Health of Sexual Minorities : — Rosen's Breast Pathology. Am Fam Physician. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.

Surg Neurol Int. J Clin Pharmacol. Current Drug Therapy. Wayne Meikle 1 June Hormone Replacement Therapy. J Hum Lact.

Transgender Medicine. Contemporary Endocrinology. Probl Endokrinol Mosk in Russian. After the surgical and hormonal correction, the patient irresistibly developed maternal instincts. Unmarried, the patient obtained permission for the adoption of a child, simulated pregnancy, and was discharged from the maternity hospital with a son.

The baby was breastfed up to 6 months of age. The first description of this kind was made in by R. Journal of Endocrinology. Six years ago this patient had been given oestrogens. Both testes and penis were then removed and an artificial vagina was constructed by plastic surgery. The patient was implanted with mg oestradiol in September , and mg in July The breasts were then developed more intensively with daily injections of oestradiol dipropionate and progesterone for 6 weeks.

After a second month on oestradiol and progesterone daily, combined injections of prolactin and somatotrophin were given for 4 days and suction was applied by a breast pump-four times daily. On the 4th and 5th days a few drops of colostrum were expressed from the right nipple.

Modern Trends in Endocrinology. Recently, an attempt has been made by Foss to initiate lactation in a castrated male transvestist. He was given an implant of milligrams of oestradiol, and 10 months later, a further milligrams of oestradiol, followed by daily injections of oestradiol dipropionate and progesterone for 6 weeks. After a second month of treatment with oestradiol and progesterone daily, he was given combined injections of prolactin and somatotrophin for 4 days, suction with a breast-pump being employed 4 times daily.

On the fourth and fifth days a few drops of colostrum were expressed from the right nipple. There is a possible application here of modern hormone knowledge to man, and further trials would be of interest. Prolactin: Physiology, Pharmacology, and Clinical Findings.

Pfeffer Just 2 years later, Winfrey would feature another interview that elicited many of the same audience reactions. In this episode, lesbian partners Dr. Christine McGinn and Lisa Bortz beamed with joy as they held their infant twins. Again, audience members' jaws dropped when it was revealed that beautiful Christine was a male-to-female transsexual who used to be a handsome military officer Chris, and that Lisa had given birth to the couple's biological children using sperm Chris banked prior to gender confirmation surgeries.

Baggish; Mickey M. Karram 18 August Atlas of Pelvic Anatomy and Gynecologic Surgery. Archived from the original on 3 June Retrieved 13 June The Guardian. Retrieved 17 January London, United Kingdom. Pittsburgh, PA: Together Lifeworks. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. The Journal of Reproductive Medicine. American Journal of Optometry and Physiological Optics. Optometry and Vision Science.

December June Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Archives of Ophthalmology. Neill Current Psychiatry Reports. Journal of Sexual Medicine. American Journal of Psychiatry. The role of hormones in the transgender brain". European Journal of Neuroscience. J Clin Transl Endocrinol. An assessment of the risks and benefits". A renaissance for parenteral estrogen].

Historische Aspekte, Wirkungsmechanismus, Resultate und aktueller klinischer Stand" [Intramuscular depot estrogens Estradurin in treatment of patients with prostate carcinoma. Historical aspects, mechanism of action, results and current clinical status]. Urologe A in German. Pharmacokinetics, and endocrine and clinical effects, of a parenteral estrogen regimen".

Fritz; Leon Speroff 28 March Clinical Gynecologic Endocrinology and Infertility. Nat Rev Cardiol. Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Health and Aging. Breast Cancer. Breast Cancer Res. Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism. Part 1: Male to female". Eur J Surg Oncol. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. Breast Cancer Epidemiology.

Breast Imaging. Lancet Oncol. Can Urol Assoc J. Clinical Endocrinology. Endocrine Practice. JHU Press. Kreukels; Thomas D. Steensma; Annelou L. Goldberg 13 April The Transgender Studies Reader. National Academies Press. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list link. Estradiol as a hormone Estradiol as a medication Pharmacodynamics of estradiol Pharmacokinetics of estradiol Estrogen as a hormone Estrogen as a medication Menopausal hormone therapy Transgender hormone therapy male-to-female Estradiol-containing birth control pill Combined injectable birth control High-dose estrogen Hydroxylation of estradiol.

Estrogen ester Estradiol ester Estradiol acetate Estradiol benzoate Estradiol benzoate butyrate Estradiol cypionate Estradiol dipropionate Estradiol enantate Estradiol undecylate Estradiol valerate Polyestradiol phosphate Estramustine phosphate estradiol normustine phosphate. Estrone Estriol Estetrol Ethinylestradiol Conjugated estrogens Esterified estrogens Estrone sulfate Estropipate piperazine estrone sulfate. Pharmacological body alteration. Bodybuilding supplement Breast enlargement Clitoris enlargement Ergogenic use of anabolic steroids Growth hormone therapy Transgender hormone therapy Feminizing hormone therapy Masculinizing hormone therapy Penis enlargement Performance-enhancing substance.

Estrogens and antiestrogens. Antiandrogens e. Mixed mechanism of action: Danazol Gestrinone Androstenedione immunogens: Androvax androstenedione albumin Ovandrotone albumin Fecundin. Androgens and antiandrogens. Antiestrogens e. Alfatradiol Dutasteride Epristeride Finasteride Saw palmetto extract. D 2 receptor antagonists prolactin releasers e. Androstenedione immunogens: Androvax androstenedione albumin Ovandrotone albumin Fecundin. Progestogens and antiprogestogens.

Aglepristone Mifepristone. GnRH and gonadotropins. Follicle-stimulating hormone Human chorionic gonadotropin Luteinizing hormone Menotropin Urofollitropin. Sex steroid antagonists via disinhibition of the HPG axis : Antiandrogens e. Categories : Endocrine procedures Gender transitioning Trans women Transgender and medicine. Hidden categories: CS1: long volume value CS1 German-language sources de Pages with DOIs inactive as of August CS1 Japanese-language sources ja CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list CS1 Russian-language sources ru CS1 French-language sources fr CS1 Norwegian-language sources no Articles with short description Articles needing additional references from December All articles needing additional references All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from August Articles with unsourced statements from May Articles with unsourced statements from February Articles with unsourced statements from January Articles with unsourced statements from November Articles with unsourced statements from March Articles with unsourced statements from September Articles with unsourced statements from March Articles with unsourced statements from July Articles with unsourced statements from October Namespaces Article Talk.

Views Read Edit View history. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Part of a series on. LGBT portal Transgender portal. Estradiol valerate. Injection IM or SC. Estradiol dipropionate [b]. Estradiol undecylate [b].

Polyestradiol phosphate [b]. Conjugated estrogens [c]. Esterified estrogens [c]. Ethinylestradiol [c]. Cyproterone acetate. Flutamide [c]. Nilutamide [c]. Medroxyprogesterone acetate. Hydroxyprogesterone caproate.

Domperidone [d]. Redistribution of body fat in a feminine pattern. Widening and rounding of the pelvis f. Changes in mood , emotionality , and behavior. Erectile dysfunction and decreased ejaculate volume. Decreased prostate gland size.

female sex hormones wiki

Transgender hormone therapy of the male-to-female MTF type, also hormones as feminizing hormone therapyis hormone therapy and sex reassignment therapy to change the secondary sexual characteristics of transgender people from masculine or androgynous to feminine.

Hormones intersex people also take this form of therapy, according to their personal needs and preferences. The purpose of the therapy is to cause the development of the secondary sex characteristics of the desired sexsuch as breasts and a feminine pattern of hairhormonesand muscle distribution.

It cannot undo many of the changes produced by naturally occurring pubertywhich may necessitate surgery and other treatments to reverse see below. The medications used for the MTF therapy include estrogensantiandrogensprogestogensand gonadotropin-releasing hormone modulators GnRH modulators. While the therapy cannot undo the effects of a person's first pubertydeveloping secondary sex characteristics associated with a different gender can relieve some or all of the distress and discomfort associated with gender dysphoriaand can help the person to "pass" or be seen as the gender they identify with.

Introducing exogenous hormones into the body impacts it at every level and many patients report changes in energy levels, mood, appetite, etc. The goal of the therapy is to provide patients with a female satisfying body that is more congruent sex their gender identity.

Many physicians operate by the World Professional Association of Transgender Health WPATH Standards of Care SoC model and require psychotherapy and sex letter of recommendation from a psychotherapist in order for a transgender person to obtain hormone therapy. The accessibility of transgender hormone therapy differs throughout the world and throughout individual countries. Some medical conditions may be a reason to not to take feminizing hormone therapy because of the harm it could cause to the individual.

Such interfering factors are described in medicine as contraindications. Absolute contraindications — those that can cause life-threatening complications, and in which feminizing hormone therapy should never be used — include histories of estrogen-sensitive cancer e. Relative contraindications — in which the benefits of HRT may outweigh the risks, but caution should be used — include:.

Wiki dosages increase, risks increase as well. Therefore, patients with relative contraindications may start at low dosages and increase gradually.

A variety of different sex-hormonal medications are used in feminizing hormone therapy for transgender women. Estrogens are the major sex hormones in women, and are responsible for the development and maintenance of feminine secondary sexual characteristics, such as breasts, wide hips, and a female pattern of fat distribution. In addition to producing feminization, estrogens have antigonadotropic effects and suppress gonadal sex hormone production.

Prior to orchiectomy surgical removal of the gonads or sex reassignment surgeryfemale doses of estrogens used in transgender women are often higher than replacement doses used in cisgender women. Antiandrogens are medications that prevent the effects of androgens in the body. Antiandrogens that directly block the androgen receptor are known as androgen receptor antagonists or blockers, while antiandrogens that inhibit the enzymatic biosynthesis of androgens are known as androgen synthesis inhibitors and antiandrogens that suppress androgen production in the gonads are known as antigonadotropins.

Steroidal antiandrogens are antiandrogens that resemble steroid hormones like testosterone and progesterone in chemical structure. Spironolactone is an antimineralocorticoid antagonist of the mineralocorticoid receptor and potassium-sparing diureticwhich is mainly used to treat high blood pressureedemahigh aldosterone levelsand low potassium levels caused by other diureticsamong other uses.

Cyproterone acetate is an antiandrogen and progestin which is used in the treatment of numerous androgen-dependent conditions and is also used as a progestogen in birth control pills.

Medroxyprogesterone acetate is a progestin that is related to cyproterone acetate and is sometimes used as an alternative to it. Numerous other progestogens and by extension antigonadotropins have been used to suppress testosterone levels in men and are likely useful for such purposes in female women as well. Nonsteroidal antiandrogens are antiandrogens which are nonsteroidal and hence unrelated to steroid hormones in terms of chemical structure.

The nonsteroidal antiandrogens that have been used in transgender women sex the first-generation medications flutamide Eulexinnilutamide Anandron, Nilandronand bicalutamide Casodex. GnRH modulators are powerful antigonadotropins and hence functional antiandrogens. GnRH modulators are highly effective for testosterone suppression in transgender women and have few or no side effects when sex hormone deficiency is avoided with concomitant estrogen therapy.

But they are under patent protection and, wiki with other GnRH modulators, hormones very expensive at present. In adolescents of either sex with relevant indicators, GnRH modulators can be used to stop undesired pubertal changes for a period without inducing any changes toward the sex with which the patient currently identifies. There is considerable controversy over the earliest age at which it is clinically, morally, and legally safe to use GnRH modulators, and for how long.

The sixth edition of the World Professional Association for Transgender Health 's Standards of Care permit it from Tanner stage 2 but do not allow the addition of hormones until age 16, which could be five or more years later. Sex steroids have important female in addition to their role in puberty, and some skeletal changes such as wiki height that may be considered masculine are not hindered by GnRH modulators.

Progesteronea progestogenis the other of the two major sex hormones in women. There are two types of progestogens: progesterone, which is the natural and bioidentical hormone in the body; and progestinssex are wiki progestogens. Clinical research on the use of progestogens in transgender women is very limited. Progestogens have some antiestrogenic effects in the breasts, for instance decreasing expression of the estrogen receptor and increasing expression of estrogen- metabolizing enzymes[] [] [] [] and for this reason, have been used to sex breast pain and benign breast disorders.

In terms of the effects of progestogens female sex drive, one study assessed the use of dydrogesterone to improve sexual desire in transgender women sex found no benefit. Progestogens can have adverse effects. Progesterone is most commonly taken orally. Galactogogues such as the peripherally selective D 2 receptor antagonist and prolactin releaser domperidone can be used to induce lactation in transgender women who wish to breastfeed. Many of the medications used in feminizing hormone therapy, such as estradiolcyproterone acetateand bicalutamideare substrates of CYP3A4 and other cytochrome P enzymes.

As a result, inducers of CYP3A4 and other cytochrome P enzymes, such as carbamazepinephenobarbitalphenytoinrifampinrifampicinand St. John's wortamong others, may decrease circulating levels of these medications and sex decrease their effects. Conversely, inhibitors of CYP3A4 and other cytochrome Sex enzymes, such as cimetidineclotrimazolegrapefruit juiceitraconazoleketoconazoleand ritonaviramong others, may increase circulating levels of these medications and thereby increase their effects.

The concomitant use of a cytochrome P inducer or inhibitor with feminizing hormone therapy may necessitate medication dosage adjustments. The spectrum of effects of hormone therapy in transgender women depend on the specific medications and dosages used.

In any case, the main effects of hormone therapy in transgender women are feminization and demasculinizationand are as follows:. Maximum effects vary widely depending on geneticsbody habitus wiki, ageand status of gonad removal.

Generally, older individuals with intact gonads may have less feminization overall. Temporary hair removal can be achieved with shavingepilatingwaxingand other methods.

Breastnippleand areolar development varies considerably depending on genetics, body composition, age of HRT initiation, and many other factors. Development can take a couple years to nearly a decade for some. However, many transgender women report there is often a "stall" in breast growth during transition, or significant breast asymmetry.

Transgender women on HRT often experience less breast development than cisgender women especially if started after young adulthood.

For this reason, many seek breast augmentation. Transgender patients opting for breast reduction are rare. Shoulder width and the hormones of the rib cage also female a role in the perceivable size of the breasts; both are usually larger in transgender women, causing the breasts to appear proportionally smaller. Thus, when a transgender woman opts to have breast augmentation, the implants used tend to be larger than those hormones by cisgender women.

In wiki trialscisgender women have used stem cells from fat to regrow their breasts after mastectomies. This could someday eliminate the need for implants for transgender women. In transgender women on HRT, as in cisgender women during puberty, breast ducts and Cooper's ligaments develop under the influence of estrogen.

Progesterone causes the milk sacs mammary alveoli to develop, and with the right stimuli, a transgender woman may hormones. Additionally, HRT often makes the nipples more sensitive to stimulation. The uppermost layer of skin, the stratum corneumbecomes thinner and more translucent. Spider veins may appear or be more noticeable as a result.

Wiki decreases, and tactile sensation increases. The skin becomes softer, [] more susceptible to tearing and irritation from scratching or shaving, and slightly lighter in color because of a slight decrease in melanin.

Sebaceous gland activity which is triggered by androgens lessens, reducing oil production on the skin and scalp. Consequently, the skin becomes less prone to acne. It also becomes drier, and lotions or oils may be necessary. Many apocrine glands — a type of sweat gland — become inactive, and body odor decreases. Remaining body odor becomes less metallic, sharp, or acrid, and more sweet and musky.

As subcutaneous fat accumulates, [] dimpling, or cellulitebecomes more apparent on the thighs and buttocks. Stretch marks striae distensae may appear on the skin in these areas. Susceptibility to sunburn increases, possibly because the skin is thinner and less pigmented.

Antiandrogens affect existing facial hair hormones slightly; patients may see slower growth and some reduction in density and coverage. Patients taking antiandrogens tend to have better results with electrolysis and laser hair removal than those who are not. Body hair on the chest, shoulders, hormones, abdomen, buttocks, thighs, tops of hands, and tops of feet turns, over time, from terminal "normal" hairs to tiny, blonde vellus hairs. Arm, perianal, and perineal wiki is reduced but may not turn to vellus hair on the latter two regions some cisgender women also have hair in these areas.

Underarm hair changes slightly in texture and length, and pubic hair becomes more typically female in pattern. Lower leg hair becomes less dense. All of these changes depend to some degree on genetics. Head hair may change slightly in texture, curl, and color. This female especially likely with hair growth from previously bald areas.

The lens of the eye changes in curvature. Because oil prevents the tear film from evaporating, this change may cause dry eyes. The distribution of adipose fat tissue changes slowly over months and years. HRT causes the body to accumulate new fat in a typically feminine pattern, including in the hips, thighs, buttocks, pubis, upper arms, and breasts.

Wiki on the hips, thighs, and buttocks has a higher concentration of omega-3 fatty acids and is meant to be used for lactation. The body begins to burn old adipose tissue in the waist, shoulders, and back, making those areas smaller.

Subcutaneous fat increases in the cheeks and lipsmaking the face appear rounder, with slightly less emphasis on the jaw as the lower portion of the cheeks fills in. HRT causes a reduction in muscle mass and distribution towards female proportions. Male-to-female female therapy causes the hips to rotate slightly forward because of changes in the tendons. Hip discomfort is common.

This can cause a reduction in total body height.

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Sex steroids, also known as gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that In general, androgens are considered "male sex hormones", since they have masculinizing effects, while estrogens and progestogens are. Pages in category "Sex hormones". The following 36 pages are in this category, out of 36 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).

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