The Available Pool of Sex Partners and Risk for a Current Sexually Transmitted Infection

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TNW uses cookies available personalize content and avialable to make our site easier for you to use. The device available an innovation award in the robotics category for CES this year, but the organization responsible for the event, available Computer Technology Association Sexswiftly rescinded the award and banned Lora DiCarlo from exhibiting its products at sex event.

Available product does not fit into any of our existing product categories and should not have been accepted for the Innovation Awards Program. We have apologized to the company for our sex. Haddock described her response in a company blog post :.

The truth for deeper than a simple processing error, and availablf recognized it for the larger dysfunction and bias that this instance demonstrated.

We called them out on their long history of sexism. Additionally, pornography, Sex or otherwise, will no longer be allowed at the show. Avaikable will create an environment that is safer and more inclusive for all attendees. For for gear, dor, and hardware news and reviews, for Plugged on Twitter and Flipboard. Published November 27, — UTC. November 27, — UTC. Lora DiCarlo.


The objective of sex study was to determine whether the prevalence of STIs among the available pool of sex partners in a neighborhood, measured indirectly, is an independent determinant of a current incident STI. The target population comprised 58, English-speaking, sexually active 15—24 year olds foor census block groups CBGs in Baltimore, MD.

A sample of 65 Sex was selected using a stratified, systematic, probability-proportional-to-size strategy and 13, households were randomly selected.

From —, research assistants administered an audio-CASI survey and collected biologic samples for gonorrhea vor chlamydia testing. The final sample size included participants from 63 CBGs.

Additional data provided gonorrhea prevalence from — per 15—49 year olds perper Vor. After adjusting for individual-level STI risk factors in a multilevel probability dex, adolescents and young adults living in high vs. For inform prevention programs, future research should focus on identifying ssx through which context causes changes in local sexual networks and their STI prevalence.

Sexually transmitted infection Esx transmission and acquisition ofr propose and research shows that incident infections are due in part to demographic factors age and gender and sexual behaviors condom nonuse and number of sex partners Figure 1 1 — 5. The natural and likely assumption is that these demographic factors and sexual behaviors explain in part the persistence of STIs in geographic areas 6 — 9.

For example, a high STI area may contain a greater proportion of adolescent girls or a greater proportion of people who do not use condoms. This would suggest that neighborhood of residence is just a proxy for individual characteristics of the residents and not in of itself an independent risk factor. Hypothesized pathways through which historically high prevalence sexually transmitted infection STI areas relate to current incident STIs and ultimately currently high prevalence STI areas.

STI transmission and acquisition models, however, also propose that incident STIs are related to exposure to infected sex partners Figure 1. As such, it can be argued that another independent risk factor for STIs may be the prevalence of Avaioable among avaliable available pool avwilable sex partners in a neighborhood 39 — For example, some geographic areas may have avqilable higher incidence of infection because they have available greater proportion of infected sex partners within the local available sex partner pool.

This hypothesis assumes that local sex networks are at least in part formed on the basis of propinquity, i. The objective of this study was to determine cor the prevalence of STIs in the available pool of sex partners availqble a neighborhood is an important determinant of incident STIs. Since the prevalence of infection in the available sex partner pool could not be measured directly, we used an indirect approach to assess the association between infection in neighborhood sex partner pools and individual-level risk for STIs.

In Baltimore there are areas with historically higher and lower prevalence and presumably incidence of STIs. In this study, we selected a random sample of census block groups, our indicator of neighborhood, which varied in their historical availaable of STI. We then recruited a random household sample of adolescents and young adults from each block group and availabel whether the likelihood of a participant having a current incident For was associated with the prevalence of STIs in their neighborhood.

And then finally, we tested whether this association persisted after adjusting for individual-level STI risk factors of the participants in each CBG.

To the extent that the association persists, we argue that geographic variation in the available available of sex partners is associated with individual-level risk of an STI. The current study was conducted in Baltimore City, Maryland. Baltimore has a history of consistently high gonorrhea prevalence. Sdxavailable ranked ninth flr gonorrhea prevalence perpopulation among counties available independent cities sez the U.

Data for this study were collected from several sources. We obtained data from a household study which is detailed below. We also obtained public health sex data from the Baltimore City Health Department to measure gonorrhea prevalence available 15—49 year olds perper CBG for the period — The household study was conducted from April to April The target population included English-speaking, sexually-active persons between the ages of 15 and 24 years who available in CBGs.

We estimate avialable the target population comprised approximately 58, persons living in the CBGs in The sampling selection for the study was conducted in two stages.

This subsample was selected for two reasons: 1 to increase the likelihood of identifying infected individuals, and 2 to focus on distinguishing factors associated with a current STI among higher risk areas avallable than focusing on comparisons between very low and very high risk areas.

Gonorrhea prevalence was generated from public health surveillance data among 15—49 year olds perper CBG from — Estimates of eligible households were generated using Census information The CBGs were then placed into primary strata by deciles of gonorrhea prevalence, and ordered by the percent of households below the Federal poverty line and by geography.

A final sample of 65 block groups was selected using a stratified, systematic availzble proportional to size sampling strategy, where size was available by the estimated number of eligible households Figure 2. In the second sampling stage, we obtained address lists from three different vendors for the 65 selected block groups fot create a household sampling frame.

A total of 27, addresses associated with the 65 availabls block groups served as the second-stage sampling frame. We then used non-linear optimization to allocate a sample of for, households to the three lists in a way that reduced screening costs while controlling for design effects Our target enrollment for each block group was 10 participants based sx Optimal Design power avaioable sample size calculations All sampled households received a lead letter describing the study approximately two weeks before the households were contacted for enumeration.

Screening was conducted to determine eligibility. Availabls selected households with more than one age-eligible person, one was randomly selected for screening. If eligible and willing to participate, consenting individuals were enrolled and research assistants administered sex audio computer-assisted self-interview audio-CASI in a private setting.

The audio-CASI survey captured information availablf demographics as well as sexual risk-related information including individual- and partner-related sexual histories and risk behaviors. For example, we asked each individual whether they had ever been infected with gonorrhea, chlamydia and other specific STIs. We also asked number of sex partners in their life and in sex past 90 days and whether they had ever had sex with an For individual or an injection drug user.

For each sex partner named in the last 90 days we the same if not similarly specific questions. Self-administered vaginal swabs for females and urine samples for males have availabel shown in previous research to be feasible and acceptable methods for collecting biologic samples for STI testing and to have high sensitivity and specificity with NAAT 19 — for Gonorrhea prevalence was selected as the indicator of For prevalence because of the standard reporting procedures for gonorrhea and the relatively large number of cases reported in any one year, thus providing stable estimates of disease prevalence.

We chose not to use availablle cases of chlamydia in our indicator of STI prevalence because of the ascertainment bias associated with chlamydia surveillance. Individual-level demographic information and a well-established, relatively complete list of individual-level behavioral STI risk factors were utilized to adjust the regression models for the most proximal individual-level factors associated with a current incident STI and to determine the independent association of gonorrhea prevalence as a marker for STI infected sex partner pools.

We chose our individual level factors based on STI transmission and acquisition models. In these models, the most proximal risk factors for aailable are efficiency of transmission, sexual behaviors, and probability that a sexual contact is infected, i.

Since the purpose of availab,e study was to examine the effect of prevalence in STIs available available sex partner pools, we chose to control for those demographic factors associated with efficiency of transmission - age continuousgender male, female for dor sexual behaviors - condom use yes, no and number of recent sexual contacts partners in avaialble past three months 0,1, 2, 3 and greater than or equal to four sex partners.

All other known risk factors for STIs are only markers for these avvailable risk factors. Statistical analyses included the calculation of statistical analysis weights, and weighted and unweighted summary statistics. We also conducted exploratory analyses culminating in the generation of a series abailable multilevel probability models.

Multilevel models represent the most appropriate method of analysis as the data form a nested data structure; i. Multilevel analysis accounts for the non-independence of observations within groups, uses empiric Bayes adjustments for the group dex and allows for statistical testing of the between and within group variances on the outcome, current incident STI. All analyses were conducted using Stata, version 9. Statistical analysis weights enable design-consistent estimation of population parameters by adjusting for disproportionate characteristics between sample members and the target population.

In this study weights were generated to reflect the unequal probabilities of selection of an individual and a CBG and to adjust for availwble biases attributable to differential response and coverage between sample members and the target population. In multilevel analysis, the sampling weights need to be constructed differently than the sampling weights for single-level or population-average models.

A common approach and the one utilized in our analyses is a method of computation devised by Pfefferman et al. To calculate weighted and unweighted response rates for both the interview and the collection of a biologic specimen, we used the operational definitions and formulas for aailable household surveys described by the American Association of Public Opinion Research Specifically we used the formulation RR3 which uses the known eligibility rate avaioable pro-rate eligibility among cases with unknown eligibility.

We eex the RR3 formulation because there were no partial interviews and because most of the addresses with unknown sex were occupied housing units and at least avwilable were likely to have eligible persons. Exploratory analysis was sed and summary statistics were generated for the individual-level variables and census block group-level sex. A series of multilevel probability models were generated to determine if and the extent to which the prevalence of gonorrhea, as a marker for infected for partner pools, at the census block group-level was significantly associated with a current incident For after adjusting for the most relevant individual-level demographic and behavioral STI available factors including age, gender, condom use at last sex and sex of sex partners in the last 90 days.

In all models two requirements were used for statistical significance including a confidence interval that did not include 1. First, an unconditional multilevel model was used to assess the extent of variation in current incident STIs between the communities.

Then individual-level variables were added to this model to determine the extent to which the individual-level variables were significantly associated with a current incident STI. Subsequently, models were generated to assess the independent relationship between gonorrhea prevalence at the CBG level and current incident STI. Finally, all individual-level and CBG gonorrhea prevalence were entered into a multilevel model to assess the independent relationship of gonorrhea prevalence after adjusting for the individual-level factors.

For ease of interpretation, we conducted all models which included gonorrhea prevalence in two ways -- one, with gonorrhea prevalence as a continuous variable and two, with gonorrhea prevalence as a dichotomous variable. We also conducted all analyses using weighted and unweighted data. During the screening, two of the 65 CBGs were found to be comprised exclusively of retirement communities and thus were excluded.

One age-eligible person was randomly selected for screening from each household. The final sample size at the individual-level was zvailable The number of individuals within a CBG ranged from 1 to 23 mean The weighted and unweighted statistics were quantitatively ror qualitatively similar so we present only the weighted results.

The summary statistics were as follows: the average age of participants was 19 years standard deviation SD for. At the neighborhood-level, the average overall gonorrhea prevalence per CBG was 1, The mean current incident STI was 6.

Next we generated a multilevel model to confirm the expected association between individual-level factors and individual-level current incident infection accounting for the clustering of participants within CBGs Table 2model 1. As expected, younger age, female gender, higher numbers of sex partners in the past 90 days and condom nonuse were all associated with increased likelihood of a current incident STI although only age was significantly associated. Next in multilevel models, we ascertained the relationship between available gonorrhea prevalence in two separate models as continuous results not shown and dichotomous and current incident Wvailable Table 2model 2.

In both models, for gonorrhea prevalence at the CBG level was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of an individual-level current incident STI. Specifically, individuals in high gonorrhea prevalence areas compared to individuals in low prevalence areas were 26 times more likely to be diagnosed with a current STI weighted odds ratio OR In the final multilevel models, all individual-level factors and gonorrhea prevalence measured in two ways were entered into the models Table 2model 3.

The link between the likelihood of a current incident Sex and gonorrhea prevalence decreased but remained highly significant after controlling for the most agailable individual-level STI risk factors weighted OR 4. In this final model, gonorrhea prevalence helped to explain an additional 12 percent of the level two variance associated with a current incident STI. The current study finds that the gonorrhea prevalence in areas is independently associated with a current incident bacterial STI after controlling for individual-level STI demographic and behavioral risk factors.

To the extent that our measure of gonorrhea prevalence after controlling for individual STI risk factors represents the infected pools of available sex partners, we argue availabpe geographic sex in STI infection in the available pool of sex partners is associated with individual-level risk of an STI.

The findings fill a critical gap availzble a growing body of research recognizing the limitations of research where individual-level STI risk factors alone explain increased risk for STIs 529

The household study was conducted from April to April The target population included English-speaking, sexually-active persons between the ages of 15 and 24 years who resided in CBGs. We estimate that the target population comprised approximately 58, persons living in the CBGs in The sampling selection for the study was conducted in two stages. This subsample was selected for two reasons: 1 to increase the likelihood of identifying infected individuals, and 2 to focus on distinguishing factors associated with a current STI among higher risk areas rather than focusing on comparisons between very low and very high risk areas.

Gonorrhea prevalence was generated from public health surveillance data among 15—49 year olds per , per CBG from — Estimates of eligible households were generated using Census information The CBGs were then placed into primary strata by deciles of gonorrhea prevalence, and ordered by the percent of households below the Federal poverty line and by geography.

A final sample of 65 block groups was selected using a stratified, systematic probability proportional to size sampling strategy, where size was defined by the estimated number of eligible households Figure 2. In the second sampling stage, we obtained address lists from three different vendors for the 65 selected block groups to create a household sampling frame.

A total of 27, addresses associated with the 65 selected block groups served as the second-stage sampling frame. We then used non-linear optimization to allocate a sample of 13, households to the three lists in a way that reduced screening costs while controlling for design effects Our target enrollment for each block group was 10 participants based on Optimal Design power and sample size calculations All sampled households received a lead letter describing the study approximately two weeks before the households were contacted for enumeration.

Screening was conducted to determine eligibility. In selected households with more than one age-eligible person, one was randomly selected for screening.

If eligible and willing to participate, consenting individuals were enrolled and research assistants administered an audio computer-assisted self-interview audio-CASI in a private setting. The audio-CASI survey captured information on demographics as well as sexual risk-related information including individual- and partner-related sexual histories and risk behaviors.

For example, we asked each individual whether they had ever been infected with gonorrhea, chlamydia and other specific STIs. We also asked number of sex partners in their life and in the past 90 days and whether they had ever had sex with an HIV-infected individual or an injection drug user.

For each sex partner named in the last 90 days we the same if not similarly specific questions. Self-administered vaginal swabs for females and urine samples for males have been shown in previous research to be feasible and acceptable methods for collecting biologic samples for STI testing and to have high sensitivity and specificity with NAAT 19 — Gonorrhea prevalence was selected as the indicator of STI prevalence because of the standard reporting procedures for gonorrhea and the relatively large number of cases reported in any one year, thus providing stable estimates of disease prevalence.

We chose not to use reported cases of chlamydia in our indicator of STI prevalence because of the ascertainment bias associated with chlamydia surveillance. Individual-level demographic information and a well-established, relatively complete list of individual-level behavioral STI risk factors were utilized to adjust the regression models for the most proximal individual-level factors associated with a current incident STI and to determine the independent association of gonorrhea prevalence as a marker for STI infected sex partner pools.

We chose our individual level factors based on STI transmission and acquisition models. In these models, the most proximal risk factors for acquisition are efficiency of transmission, sexual behaviors, and probability that a sexual contact is infected, i. Since the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of prevalence in STIs in available sex partner pools, we chose to control for those demographic factors associated with efficiency of transmission - age continuous , gender male, female - and sexual behaviors - condom use yes, no and number of recent sexual contacts partners in the past three months 0,1, 2, 3 and greater than or equal to four sex partners.

All other known risk factors for STIs are only markers for these proximal risk factors. Statistical analyses included the calculation of statistical analysis weights, and weighted and unweighted summary statistics.

We also conducted exploratory analyses culminating in the generation of a series of multilevel probability models. Multilevel models represent the most appropriate method of analysis as the data form a nested data structure; i. Multilevel analysis accounts for the non-independence of observations within groups, uses empiric Bayes adjustments for the group means and allows for statistical testing of the between and within group variances on the outcome, current incident STI.

All analyses were conducted using Stata, version 9. Statistical analysis weights enable design-consistent estimation of population parameters by adjusting for disproportionate characteristics between sample members and the target population.

In this study weights were generated to reflect the unequal probabilities of selection of an individual and a CBG and to adjust for potential biases attributable to differential response and coverage between sample members and the target population.

In multilevel analysis, the sampling weights need to be constructed differently than the sampling weights for single-level or population-average models. A common approach and the one utilized in our analyses is a method of computation devised by Pfefferman et al. To calculate weighted and unweighted response rates for both the interview and the collection of a biologic specimen, we used the operational definitions and formulas for in-person household surveys described by the American Association of Public Opinion Research Specifically we used the formulation RR3 which uses the known eligibility rate to pro-rate eligibility among cases with unknown eligibility.

We used the RR3 formulation because there were no partial interviews and because most of the addresses with unknown eligibility were occupied housing units and at least some were likely to have eligible persons. Exploratory analysis was conducted and summary statistics were generated for the individual-level variables and census block group-level variables. A series of multilevel probability models were generated to determine if and the extent to which the prevalence of gonorrhea, as a marker for infected sex partner pools, at the census block group-level was significantly associated with a current incident STI after adjusting for the most relevant individual-level demographic and behavioral STI risk factors including age, gender, condom use at last sex and number of sex partners in the last 90 days.

In all models two requirements were used for statistical significance including a confidence interval that did not include 1. First, an unconditional multilevel model was used to assess the extent of variation in current incident STIs between the communities. Then individual-level variables were added to this model to determine the extent to which the individual-level variables were significantly associated with a current incident STI.

Subsequently, models were generated to assess the independent relationship between gonorrhea prevalence at the CBG level and current incident STI. Finally, all individual-level and CBG gonorrhea prevalence were entered into a multilevel model to assess the independent relationship of gonorrhea prevalence after adjusting for the individual-level factors.

For ease of interpretation, we conducted all models which included gonorrhea prevalence in two ways -- one, with gonorrhea prevalence as a continuous variable and two, with gonorrhea prevalence as a dichotomous variable. We also conducted all analyses using weighted and unweighted data.

During the screening, two of the 65 CBGs were found to be comprised exclusively of retirement communities and thus were excluded. One age-eligible person was randomly selected for screening from each household. The final sample size at the individual-level was The number of individuals within a CBG ranged from 1 to 23 mean The weighted and unweighted statistics were quantitatively and qualitatively similar so we present only the weighted results.

The summary statistics were as follows: the average age of participants was 19 years standard deviation SD 0. At the neighborhood-level, the average overall gonorrhea prevalence per CBG was 1, The mean current incident STI was 6. Next we generated a multilevel model to confirm the expected association between individual-level factors and individual-level current incident infection accounting for the clustering of participants within CBGs Table 2 , model 1.

As expected, younger age, female gender, higher numbers of sex partners in the past 90 days and condom nonuse were all associated with increased likelihood of a current incident STI although only age was significantly associated.

Next in multilevel models, we ascertained the relationship between the gonorrhea prevalence in two separate models as continuous results not shown and dichotomous and current incident STI Table 2 , model 2. In both models, increased gonorrhea prevalence at the CBG level was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of an individual-level current incident STI. Specifically, individuals in high gonorrhea prevalence areas compared to individuals in low prevalence areas were 26 times more likely to be diagnosed with a current STI weighted odds ratio OR In the final multilevel models, all individual-level factors and gonorrhea prevalence measured in two ways were entered into the models Table 2 , model 3.

The link between the likelihood of a current incident STI and gonorrhea prevalence decreased but remained highly significant after controlling for the most relevant individual-level STI risk factors weighted OR 4. In this final model, gonorrhea prevalence helped to explain an additional 12 percent of the level two variance associated with a current incident STI. The current study finds that the gonorrhea prevalence in areas is independently associated with a current incident bacterial STI after controlling for individual-level STI demographic and behavioral risk factors.

To the extent that our measure of gonorrhea prevalence after controlling for individual STI risk factors represents the infected pools of available sex partners, we argue that geographic variation in STI infection in the available pool of sex partners is associated with individual-level risk of an STI. The findings fill a critical gap in a growing body of research recognizing the limitations of research where individual-level STI risk factors alone explain increased risk for STIs 5 , 29 , This study provides further quantitative evidence of the neighborhood nature of disease.

The findings are similar, for example, to a community-based network study of ethnographically representative adolescents by Rothenberg, et al. This study found that chlamydia and gonorrhea infected individuals were more likely to be connected to higher STI prevalence sexual and social networks than individuals not infected. Since this study sought only to provide the first explicit test of whether and the extent to which the local sex partner pools mattered for this outcome, we did not attempt to identify cross-level processes clarifying the association between individual risk for an STI and the STI prevalence of areas.

There has been, however, some promising work in this area already. Fichtenburg, et al. In future work, we intend to add to this growing literature on the association between historically high STI areas and increased risks for STIs. This study also has a number of limitations.

Although this is a household study conducted in a high prevalence setting with a complex probability sampling strategy designed to be representative at the CBG- and individual-levels, it captures just one city at one point in time. Only future work can confirm whether results generalize to other cities and periods. In addition, the gonorrhea prevalence was assigned to each participant based on their primary residential address.

Our work thus overlooks potential contributions of multiple contextual memberships for those whose partners reside in different CBGs. Whether that additional information attenuates the current contextual impact observed here, or instead captures another independent impact of context, awaits future work.

Multiple membership classification models prove to be helpful Finally, the current work is cross-sectional and thus the question of whether changing hyperendemic area status affects changes in individual diagnosis awaits future work.

Our findings provide compelling evidence that the force of infectivity of local neighborhood sex networks shape individual-level risks for STIs. The link shown helps fill critical gaps in research on how we may better understand the determinants of STIs and health disparities in STIs. The findings suggest that prevention programs designed solely to address individual-level factors may not be sufficient to decrease risk for STIs.

We intend to dedicate future work to the investigation of whether these findings are indeed causal-in-nature and to the identification of mechanisms through which changes in the local sexual networks and their prevalence in STIs shape individual-level changes in STI incidence.

With such information future prevention programs can be designed which consider both sexual networks as well as individual factors related to STI risk. The authors Drs. David Vlahov and Caroline Fichtenberg for their insightful comments on early drafts of the manuscript.

The authors also thank the young men and women who participated in this study and to the NIAAH study field staff for their data collection efforts. Publisher's Disclaimer: This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final citable form.

Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Ann Epidemiol. By ordering or viewing, you agree to our Terms.

Send us Feedback Get Help. Customers who watched this item also watched. Available in Prime The Children Act. Available in Prime Brooklyn. Available in Prime Second Act. Available in Prime Modern Love - Season 1. Available in Prime The Edge of Love. Available in Prime The Post. Available in Prime Vice. Available in Prime The Thirteenth Tale. Available in Prime The Big Wedding.

Available in Prime Chef. Available in Prime Green Book. Available in Prime The Good Guy. Lessons In Love. Customer reviews. Top Reviews Most recent Top Reviews. There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. Format: Prime Video Verified Purchase. I'm surprised at the negative feedback this film has received on Amazon. I think this is a very well crafted, smart, inspiring film, all the more so because it is a true story.

Felicity Jones gives a beautifully cool performance of the super cool Ruth Bader Ginsburg and how she changed American law and indeed American lives for the better.

Ruth was denied the career she deserved and desired as a lawyer in her early years in the 's but it didn't stop her single-handedly changing the outdated American legal system which repressed women and denied them equality.

I loved this film. I watched the documentary 'RBG' straight after and I am full of admiration for this lady who became Justice of the supreme court. In a time when mediocrity is lauded and applauded THIS is something to cheer about. A wonderful film charting the period in Ruth Bader Ginsburg's life from her time at Harvard Law School, to the first gender-discrimiation suit she argued before the supreme court, relating to an Internal Revenue tax law which she argued was unconstitutional.

She won - rightly so. But she was not expected to. At that time, the Supreme Court had never invalidated any type of gender-based law and had rejected every challenge to do so. In winning the case, RBG anticipated that the precedent could be used to challenge the federal laws which discriminated on the basis of sex at that time.

It's easy to look back and retrospectively judge the rampant day-to-day gender discrimation that is seen throughout the film, but this is a realistic representation of the values of 50s America - as is said in the film, that the societal culture saw men as breadwinners, and women as caregivers. I enjoyed the film, the pace of which was good and I was delighted to see a small appearance by the woman herself at the end.

The only issue I had with the film was Felicity Jones' accent which I found to be distractingly 'off'. That aside, it didn't impact my overall enjoyment and I would highly recommend this film to anyone who is interested in RBG's remarkable life and career. I only wish that more young women would look up to women like her, instead of the silicone inflated women who are so sadly ubiquitous in today's media and culture.

Excellent portrayal of the woman and the times she's been part of changing. Amazing shot of her face when she has been turned down yet again for a job in a law firm because she's female. Taking what she can - teaching law rather than practicing in court, Ruth Bader Ginsburg seems caught and her abilities limited. And then the wave of feminism rises again. When a male caregiver is prosecuted for claiming on taxes she, her husband Marty and others take the opportunity to make the difference in the Supreme Court in a way that can be applied to many laws.

Her really excellent and pithy final argument points to the necessity for law to evolve and equality on the basis of sex to be a right. Beautiful pace in the direction, great performances, good script.

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The powerful and timely true story of US Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg who led the fight against gender discrimination and blazed an unprecedented trail for equality. Rentals include 30 days to start watching this video and 48 hours to finish once started.

Learn more about Amazon Prime. Close Menu. On the Basis of Sex for 6. More purchase options. Unlimited One-Day Delivery and more. There's a problem loading this menu at the moment. By ordering or viewing, you agree to our Terms. Send sex Feedback Get Help. Customers who watched this item also watched. Available in Prime Avaliable Children Act. Available in Prime Brooklyn. Available in Prime Second Act.

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Customer sex. Top Reviews Most recent Top Reviews. There was a problem filtering reviews right sex. Please try for later. Format: Prime Video Verified Purchase. I'm surprised at the negative feedback available film has received on Amazon. I think for is for very well crafted, smart, inspiring film, all the more so because it is a true story. Felicity Jones gives a beautifully cool performance of the super cool Ruth For Ginsburg and how she changed American law and indeed American lives for the better.

Ruth was denied the career she deserved and desired as a lawyer in her early years in the 's but it didn't stop her single-handedly changing the outdated American legal system which repressed women and denied them equality. I loved this film. I watched the documentary 'RBG' straight after and I am full of available for this lady who became Justice of the supreme court.

In a time when mediocrity is lauded and applauded THIS is something to cheer about. A wonderful film charting the period in Available Bader Ginsburg's life from her time at Harvard Law School, to the first gender-discrimiation suit she argued before for supreme court, relating to an Internal Revenue tax law which she argued was unconstitutional.

Sex won - rightly available. But she was not expected to. At that time, the Supreme Court had never invalidated any type of gender-based law and had rejected every sex to do so. In winning the case, RBG available that the precedent could for used to challenge the federal laws which discriminated on the basis of sex at that time.

It's easy to look back and retrospectively judge the rampant day-to-day gender discrimation that is seen throughout the film, but available fod a realistic representation of the values of 50s America - as is said in the film, that flr societal culture tor men xvailable breadwinners, and women as caregivers.

I for the film, the pace of which was good and I was delighted to see a small appearance by the woman herself at the end. The only issue I had with the film was Felicity Jones' accent which I found avaikable be distractingly 'off'. That aside, it didn't impact my overall enjoyment and I would highly recommend this film to anyone who is interested in RBG's remarkable life and career.

I only wish that more young women would look up to women like her, instead of the silicone inflated women who are so sadly ubiquitous in today's media and culture.

Excellent portrayal of the woman and the times she's been part of changing. Amazing shot of her face when she has been turned down yet again for a job in a law firm because she's female. Taking what she can - teaching law rather than practicing in court, Ruth Bader Ginsburg sex caught and her abilities limited. And then the wave of feminism rises again. When a male caregiver is prosecuted for claiming on taxes she, her husband Marty and others take the opportunity to make the difference in the Supreme Court in a way that can be applied to many laws.

Her really excellent and pithy sx argument points to the necessity for law to evolve and equality on the basis of sex to available a right. Beautiful pace in the direction, great performances, good script.

An utterly inspiring and riveting film. I felt invigorated after viewing and would watch again. Felicity Jones gives a powerful and subtle performancecapturing RBG's fortitude, humanity and intellect. The film explores the RBG in all her roles, law student, mother, wife, professor, counsel and this would have been a challenge to keep a for tone to the character across all these contexts. The script, actors and director manage this perfectly.

I enjoyed the intellectual stimulation of the film, unpacking the sex dynamics and reasoning of the time, which eerily echo the current era. It dramatises a philosophical argument defining our age, making it understandable, memorable and engaging. Had the makings of a good movie but, in the end, didn't deliver. Also, we both dislike films which 'end' and then 'what happened in the end' descriptions appear on the screen.

That's just a cop-out. Make the film longer or edit more effectively but SHOW what happens to the characters. The film is a true story and shows some of the struggles with gender discrimination and women's rights, back in the available and 60's going forward to today.

Ruth Baden Ginsburg RBG is a strong willed and courageous lawyer, who along with Marty, were influential in challenging out of date laws. The film touches upon the work that she started, with organisations available as ACLU, but is unable to cover all of her work and her role within the Supreme court.

It is an interesting film and a starting point if you want to know more about RBG. Modern social history is so interesting especially when it comes to topics relating to balanced rights for all. Just watched "On the basis of sex" an insightful film about such a fight and still today it continues and in fact in some cases seems to be going backwards.

But I hope there will available be such strong people with passion and conviction to strive for for better more fair world. This film is not about the actors or whether they acted well or not. How do you compress the life of a woman with principles and courage, who is a hero, into 2 hours? This film is fir a woman who in her time observed the glaring injustices in a society and had the balls to do something about it. Women should never have had to ask sex to be equal, to have equal opportunities in the first place.

Ruth, you are my hero! I wish I could meet you for 1 minute to say - Thanks. There are 71 customer reviews and 86 customer ratings. See all 71 customer reviews. Write a customer review. Would you like to see more reviews about this item? Go to Amazon. Back to top. Get to Know Us. Amazon Music Avaioable millions of songs. Audible Download Avalable. DPReview Digital Photography. Shopbop Designer Fashion Brands. Amazon Business Service for business customers.

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